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Removal Reversed

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REMOVAL REVERSED : Native/ non-Native joint management of reclaimed lands Zoltan Grossman www.uwec.edu/grossmzc UWEC Geography/ American Indian Studies 322Hybrid space or “negotiated space” as relates to Native peoples and land use (Morris and Fondahl 2002, Waage 2001) Mainly co-management of ceded territory resources (NWIFC 1998, Ellsworth et al 1997) Natives and non-Natives removed from landscape Return for divided ownership, joint controlAlleviate interethnic conflict Correct past injustices Against Native people Against non-Native land-based people Common source of place identity Common goals for sustainabilityHo-Chunk Nation - Closed munitions plant - Defeated dam project Wolf River tribes - Mole Lake Ojibwe, Potawatomi - Defeated mine project; two tribes bought landHo-Chunk NationxxxxxxxHo-Chunk treatiesPowerPoint PresentationReturn to WisconsinResistance to RemovalSlide 11Ho-Chunk survivalSlide 13Slide 14Kickapoo Reserve and Sauk Prairie Ho-Chunk ceded lands in purple; Present-day lands in redKickapoo ValleySlide 17La Farge DamKickapoo ReserveSlide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24xxxxSauk PrairieSlide 27Badger Ordnance Works Built in WWII on some of Wisconsin’s richest farmland. Flat area with access to water and labor.Removal of farmers, 1942Slide 30Slide 31Slide 32Badger closure begins, 1998Badger land use plan conflictsConflict over who is “local”Badger Re-Use Committee, 2001Future Land Use ConceptsSlide 38Slide 39Land divided but joint management Return of the land to those who respect and care for it the most Possible precedents for shared sovereignties (Khamisi 2001)Ho-Chunk Nation www.ho-chunknation.com Kickapoo Valley Reserve kvr.state.wi.us Badger Re-Use Committee www.co.sauk.wi.us/badgereuseplan Sauk Prairie Conservation Alliance www.saukprairievision.org Citizens for Safe Water Around Badger www.cswab.com Midwest Treaty Network www.treatyland.comEllsworth, JP, LP Hildebrand, and EA Glover. 1997. “Canada’s Atlantic Coastal Action Program: A community-based approach to collective governance.” Ocean & Coastal Management 36(2), 121-42. Goc, Michael J. 2002. Powder, People, and Place: Badger Ordnance Works and the Sauk Prairie. Friendship, Wis.: New Past Press. Ho-Chunk Nation and the State of Wisconsin. 1999. “Memorandum of Understanding Concerning the Badger Army Ammunition Plant.” (Dec. 11). Khamaisi, R. 2002. “Shared Space, Separate Geopolitically. “ Geoforum 33(3), pp 278-283. Loew, Patty, 2001. Indian Nations of Wisconsin: Histories of Endurance and Removal. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, pp 40-53. Morris, P., and G. Fondahl. .2002. “Negotiating the Production of Space in Tl’azt’en Territory, Northern British Columbia.” Canadian Geographer 26(2). Northwest Indian Fisheries Commission (NWIFC). 1998. Comprehensive Tribal Natural Resource Management: A Report from the Treaty Indian Tribes in Western Washington. Smith, Susan L. 1997, “Ho-Chunk Land Returned in Kickapoo Valley.”Wisconsin State Journal (Oct. 29). Waage, Sissel A. 2001. “(Re)claiming space and place through collaborative planning in rural Oregon.” Political Geography 20(7), pp 839-858. Wisconsin Cartographers’ Guild. 1998. Wisconsin’s Past and Present: A Historical Atlas. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Zoltán Grossman, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Geography P.O. Box 4004 University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire Eau Claire, WI 54702 Tel. (715) 836-4471 E-mail: [email protected] Website: www.uwec.edu/grossmzcREMOVAL REMOVAL REVERSED : REVERSED : Native/Native/non-Native non-Native joint management joint management of reclaimed landsof reclaimed lands Zoltan GrossmanZoltan Grossman www.uwec.edu/www.uwec.edu/grossmzcgrossmzcUWEC Geography/UWEC Geography/American Indian Studies 322American Indian Studies 322Hybrid space or “negotiated space”as relates to Native peoples and land use (Morris and Fondahl 2002, Waage 2001)Mainly co-management of ceded territory resources (NWIFC 1998, Ellsworth et al 1997)Natives and non-Natives removed from landscape Return for divided ownership, joint controlShared SpaceShared SpaceAlleviate interethnic conflictCorrect past injustices Against Native peopleAgainst non-Native land-based peopleCommon source of place identityCommon goals for sustainabilityShared SpaceShared SpaceHo-Chunk Nation- Closed munitions plant - Defeated dam projectWolf River tribes- Mole Lake Ojibwe, Potawatomi- Defeated mine project; two tribes bought landPossible Wisconsin PrecedentsPossible Wisconsin PrecedentsHo-Chunk NationHo-Chunk NationFormerly WisconsinWinnebago Tribe Origins in the effigymound builders of Southern WisconsinAgricultural peoplealong waterwaysxxxxxxx•xxxxxxxxxxHo-ChunkHo-ChunktreatiestreatiesStrategic waterways Lead Rush of 1820sRich farmlandfor settlement, 1830sResistance toIndian Removal(Loew 2001)Return to WisconsinReturn to WisconsinResistance to RemovalResistance to RemovalWazijaci (DwellersAmong Pines) hid outMany returned fromnew reservationsSome white farmersactively opposed removal by 1870s(Reedsburg incident)Ho-Chunk survivalHo-Chunk survivalWisconsin homesteadspermitted, 1870sPoor in income and land Little federal interferencewith cultural autonomyHo-Chunk survivalHo-Chunk survivalPurchased land parcels in14 countiesTribal status in 19625,000 + members by 1990sCasino success in 1990sCasino near Wisconsin DellsHo-Chunk survivalHo-Chunk survivalUsing gaming revenueto acquire a few parcels832 acres into trust by 1997Federal trust relationship used for return of other parcels MuscodabisonranchWhirlingThunderstablesKickapooKickapooReserve Reserve and Saukand SaukPrairiePrairieHo-Chunkceded lands inpurple;Present-daylands in redKickapooKickapooValleyValleyVernon County,Southwestern WisconsinKickapooKickapooValleyValleyHo-Chunk sacred sites,rock artVery few Ho-Chunkremained after RemovalMaintained visits toKickapoo RiverLa Farge DamLa Farge DamProposed 1961, butenvironmental oppositionLocal white residentsremoved from 14-milestretch of river8,600-acre site grew over;little dam constructionDam plans scuttled, 1975Kickapoo ReserveKickapoo ReserveArmy Corps of Engineerspromised to State forconservation, 1997State promised toturn over 1,200 acres toHo-Chunk NationEntire 8,600-acre siteunder joint management, 2001Kickapoo ReserveKickapoo ReserveHo-Chunk & farmershad common historyof forced removalYet conflict overwho is “local”Some resentment of DNR by former


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