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EWU CSCD 300 - Stacks

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StacksChapter ObjectivesStack Abstract Data TypeSpecification of the Stack Abstract Data TypeSpecification of the Stack Abstract Data Type (continued)Stack ApplicationsStack Applications (continued)Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Implementing a Stack as an Extension of VectorImplementing a Stack as an Extension to Vector (continued)Implementing a Stack with a List ComponentImplementing a Stack Using an ArrayImplementing a Stack Using an Array (continued)Implementing a Stack as a Linked Data StructureComparison of Stack ImplementationsAdditional Stack ApplicationsAdditional Stack Applications (continued)Slide 20Evaluating Postfix ExpressionsEvaluating Postfix Expressions (continued)Slide 23Slide 24Converting from Infix to PostfixSlide 26Slide 27Slide 28Chapter ReviewChapter Review (continued)StacksChapter 5Chapter 5: Stacks 2Chapter Objectives•To learn about the stack data type and how to use its four methods: push, pop, peek, and empty•To understand how Java implements a stack•To learn how to implement a stack using an underlying array or a linked list•To see how to use a stack to perform various applications, including finding palindromes, testing for balanced (properly nested) parentheses, and evaluating arithmetic expressionsChapter 5: Stacks 3Stack Abstract Data Type•A stack can be compared to a Pez dispenser•Only the top item can be accessed•Can only extract one item at a time•A stack is a data structure with the property that only the top element of the stack is accessible•The stack’s storage policy is Last-In, First-OutChapter 5: Stacks 4Specification of the Stack Abstract Data Type•Only the top element of a stack is visible, therefore the number of operations performed by a stack are few•Need the ability to•Inspect the top element•Retrieve the top element•Push a new element on the stack•Test for an empty stackChapter 5: Stacks 5Specification of the Stack Abstract Data Type (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 6Stack Applications•Two client programs using stacks•Palindrome finder•Parentheses matcher•Palindrome: string that reads the same in either direction•Example: “Able was I ere I saw Elba”Chapter 5: Stacks 7Stack Applications (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 8Stack Applications (continued)•When analyzing arithmetic expressions, it is important to determine whether an expression is balanced with respect to parentheses•(a+b*(c/(d-e)))+(d/e)•Problem is further complicated if braces or brackets are used in conjunction with parenthesis•Solution is to use stacks!Chapter 5: Stacks 9Stack Applications (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 10Stack Applications (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 11Implementing a Stack as an Extension of Vector•The Java API includes a Stack class as part of the package java.util•The vector class implements a growable array of objects•Elements of a vector can be accessed using an integer index and the size can grow or shrink as needed to accommodate the adding and removing of elementsChapter 5: Stacks 12Implementing a Stack as an Extension to Vector (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 13Implementing a Stack with a List Component•Can use either the ArrayList, Vector, or the LinkedList classes as all implement the List interface•Name of class illustrated in text is ListStack<E>•ListStack is an adapter class as it adapts the methods available in another class to the interface its clients expect by giving different names to essentially the same operationsChapter 5: Stacks 14Implementing a Stack Using an Array•Need to allocate storage for an array with an initial default capacity when creating a new stack object•Need to keep track of the top of the stack•No size methodChapter 5: Stacks 15Implementing a Stack Using an Array (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 16Implementing a Stack as a Linked Data Structure•We can implement a stack using a linked list of nodesChapter 5: Stacks 17Comparison of Stack Implementations•Extending a Vector (as is done by Java) is a poor choice for stack implementation as all Vector methods are accessible•Easiest implementation would be to use an ArrayList component for storing data•All insertions and deletions are constant time regardless of the type of implementation discussed•All insertions and deletions occur at one endChapter 5: Stacks 18Additional Stack Applications•Consider two case studies that relate to evaluating arithmetic expressions•Postfix and infix notation•Expressions normally written in infix form•Binary operators inserted between their operands•A computer normally scans an expression string in the order that it is input; easier to evaluate an expression in postfix formChapter 5: Stacks 19Additional Stack Applications (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 20Additional Stack Applications (continued)•Advantage of postfix form is that there is no need to group subexpressions in parentheses•No need to consider operator precedenceChapter 5: Stacks 21Evaluating Postfix ExpressionsChapter 5: Stacks 22Evaluating Postfix Expressions (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 23Evaluating Postfix Expressions (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 24Evaluating Postfix Expressions (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 25Converting from Infix to PostfixChapter 5: Stacks 26Additional Stack Applications (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 27Evaluating Postfix Expressions (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 28Evaluating Postfix Expressions (continued)Chapter 5: Stacks 29Chapter Review•A stack is a last-in, first-out (LIFO) data structure•A stack is a simple but powerful data structure; its four operations include empty, peek, pop, and push•Stacks are useful to process information in the reverse of the order that it is encountered•Java.util.Stack is implemented as an extension of the Vector classChapter 5: Stacks 30Chapter Review (continued)•Three ways to implement a stack: •Using an object of a class that implements the List interface as a container•Using an array as a container•Using a linked list as a container•Stacks can be applied in programs for evaluating arithmetic


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