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Sac State GEOG 100 - Urban Geography

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Class 11b: Urban geographyWhat is a city?Why cities?Where are cities?Ancient citiesMedieval citiesIndustrial citiesWorld citiesEconomics of citiesVon Thünen’s land use modelUrban land use modelsConcentric circlesSector modelSlide 14Multiple nucleiSuburbs and inner citiesSlide 17•Why cities? Where?•Internal spatial dynamicsClass 11b: Urban geography •Suburbanization•Inner citiesWhat is a city? •A central place (exports good and services to a larger region) •A place of a certain size and density–200 in Denmark–2,000 in the U.S.–20,000 in Japan•A recent phenomenon (3% in 1800)Why cities? •Specialization of labor•Agglomeration and efficiency–Economies of scale–Sharing suppliers, customers, services•Administration and organization•DefenseWhere are cities? •Site: characteristics of the place itself•Situation: relative characteristicsGateway to gold country At a silver depositHead of navigation On a railroadWaterfall River deltaAncient cities •Crossroads, water sources–Jericho (9000 BC)–Catal Huyuk (6000 BC)–Memphis (3000 BC)•Cooperation on irrigation, defense–Ur (5000 BC)•Interdependence of city and countryMedieval cities •Small by today’s standards–1 square mile; 300,000 inhabitants•Surrounded by wall, farm fields•Military strategy, religion, crossroads•Organic city planIndustrial cities •Rapid urban growth•New cities: close to power sources, markets–Coalfields (Manchester, UK)–Water power (Lowell, MA)•Health and social issues –London (Dickens)–Chicago (The Jungle)World cities •Based on services, not goods•Face-to-face contact, communications•Global orientation, internal inequalities•NYC, London, TokyoEconomics of cities •Your responsibility!•Basic vs. nonbasic industries •Examples (Figure 12.11)•Multiplier effectVon Thünen’s land use model•German landowner in 1800s•Noticed pattern of agricultural land use•Three assumptions:–Isolated city (no trade)–Surrounded by homogenous landscape–All that matters is transport costsUrban land use models•CBD: “highest and best use”•What happens beyond?•Three models of Chicago–“Featureless plain”–University of Chicago•Not mutually exclusiveConcentric circles•Sociologist in 1920s•CBD, then “zone of transition”•Working-class homes•Middle-class homes•Commuter suburbs•Urban ecology: invasion and successionSector model•Economist in 1930s•Central activities expand out by sector•High-end housing in attractive sector•Industrial near transportation•Middle-class housing next to high-end•Lower-class housing gets the restSector model•Status displayed via housing•Middle class always moves outward•Vacancy chains start•Fastest growing suburbs = poorest inner cityMultiple nuclei•Geographers in 1940s•CBD isn’t the only center•Commercial, industrial, port, etc. “nodes”•Expanding nodes intersectSuburbs and inner cities•Suburban residents and jobs came from somewhere•Growth now limited to suburbs•Segregation by class, race•Falling tax income, rising service needs•Spatial mismatch: jobs moved, poor didn’tSuburbs and inner cities•But agglomeration still matters•And immigrants still arrive in cities•Increasing redevelopment of downtowns–LoDo in Denver–Battery Park in NYC–Jack London Square in Oakland–Train station in


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