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UF EDF 6113 - (1) Introduction 6113

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Educational Psychology: Human Development EDF 6113TheoryWhat do we mean by development?The Big Three WorldviewsSlide 5Slide 6Bronfrenbrenner’s ModelSlide 8ResearchSlide 10Research IssuesSlide 12Slide 13Educational Psychology: Human Educational Psychology: Human Development EDF 6113Development EDF 6113Section 314 (M W)Section 314 (M W)TheoryTheoryWhat do we mean by theory:What do we mean by theory:Set of statements that attempt to Set of statements that attempt to describe behavior.describe behavior.As one increases the distance As one increases the distance between observable and inferred… between observable and inferred… less empirical evidence can be used less empirical evidence can be used to vet the theoryto vet the theoryWhat do we mean by What do we mean by development?development?Moshman’s View (2005)Moshman’s View (2005)Extended: (time typically measured in Extended: (time typically measured in months and years rather than minutes months and years rather than minutes and seconds)and seconds)Self Regulated: (maturation not learning)Self Regulated: (maturation not learning)Qualitative: (changes in kind not amount)Qualitative: (changes in kind not amount)Progressive: (changes build upon each Progressive: (changes build upon each other)other)The Big Three The Big Three WorldviewsWorldviewsMechanistic:Mechanistic:Behavior can be explained like the workings of a Behavior can be explained like the workings of a machine (broken into its constitute parts). External machine (broken into its constitute parts). External forces make the system work. forces make the system work. Operant Conditioning Watson (1878-1958)Operant Conditioning Watson (1878-1958)Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory EmphasisEmphasisReductionism, environment, continuous development, Reductionism, environment, continuous development, quantitative changequantitative changeThe Big Three The Big Three WorldviewsWorldviewsOrganismic:Organismic:Behavior can be explained like the blooming of Behavior can be explained like the blooming of a flower. Change happens from within a flower. Change happens from within (inherent). Psychological structures control (inherent). Psychological structures control development. development. Strong nativism Chomsky Strong nativism Chomsky Constructivism Piaget (1896-1980) Constructivism Piaget (1896-1980) EmphasisEmphasisHolism, active role for organism, Holism, active role for organism, discontinuous development, qualitative discontinuous development, qualitative changechangeThe Big Three The Big Three WorldviewsWorldviewsContextual:Contextual:Behavior can be explained as the constant Behavior can be explained as the constant interaction between person and environment interaction between person and environment (e.g., tapestry, historical event). Change (e.g., tapestry, historical event). Change happens from within (inherent). Psychological happens from within (inherent). Psychological structures control development. structures control development. Soviet Dialectical Theory Vygostky (1896-1934)Soviet Dialectical Theory Vygostky (1896-1934)Ecological Urie BronfenbrennerEcological Urie BronfenbrennerEmphasisEmphasisSuper Gestaltism (see Miller introduction), Super Gestaltism (see Miller introduction), child’s behavior must be situated in the child’s behavior must be situated in the context in which the child operates.context in which the child operates.Bronfrenbrenner’s ModelBronfrenbrenner’s ModelMicrosystems: people, activities in child’s Microsystems: people, activities in child’s immediate surroundings (e.g., home, school, immediate surroundings (e.g., home, school, friends)friends)Mesosystems: relationships between Mesosystems: relationships between Microsystems (e.g., parents involvement with Microsystems (e.g., parents involvement with school)school)Exosystems: indirect systems that can influence Exosystems: indirect systems that can influence the child (e.g., parent’s workplace)the child (e.g., parent’s workplace)Macrosystem: underlying social and political Macrosystem: underlying social and political climate in a child’s own culture (e.g., emphasis climate in a child’s own culture (e.g., emphasis on individual or not, competition cooperation).on individual or not, competition cooperation).TheoryTheoryResearchResearchPrinciples vs. Theories vs. HypothesesPrinciples vs. Theories vs. HypothesesPrinciples describe well-known and Principles describe well-known and established relationships between eventsestablished relationships between eventsTheories attempt to explain principles Theories attempt to explain principles (explain why things happen the way that (explain why things happen the way that they do).they do).Hypotheses are testable ideas that are used Hypotheses are testable ideas that are used to help us build Theoriesto help us build TheoriesResearchResearchDescriptive ResearchDescriptive ResearchCase StudyCase StudyContent AnalysisContent AnalysisArchival StudiesArchival StudiesSurvey ResearchSurvey ResearchCorrelationalCorrelationalQuasi-ExperimentalQuasi-ExperimentalResearch IssuesResearch IssuesValidityValidityInternal: ability of your design to adequately Internal: ability of your design to adequately test your hypotheses test your hypotheses External: the degree to which your findings External: the degree to which your findings extend beyond the research setting and sampleextend beyond the research setting and sampleGeneralizabilityGeneralizabilityObservational/Correlational vs. ExperimentalObservational/Correlational vs. ExperimentalReliabilityReliabilityAre your results replicable by othersAre your results replicable by othersResearchResearchExperimental ResearchExperimental ResearchPopulation/SamplePopulation/SampleRandomRandomSubjects (participants)Subjects (participants)Experimental and Control GroupsExperimental and Control GroupsI.V and D.V.I.V and D.V.Statistical SignificanceStatistical


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