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The Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Organizational Culture

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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEADERSHIP STYLES AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE WITHIN SCHOOLS OF NURSING Debra K Vankovich Mullins Ed D Marshall University College of Education and Human Services Dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the Marshall University Graduate College In partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education In Educational Leadership Committee Chair Dr Powell E Toth Ph D Dr Mike Burton Ed D Dr Jerry Jones Ed D Huntington West Virginia 2007 Keywords Leadership styles transformational leadership transactional leadership organizational culture schools of nursing Copyright 2007 by Debra K V Mullins Abstract The Relationship Between Leadership Styles and Organizational Culture within Schools of Nursing Debra K Vankovich Mullins The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leadership styles and organizational culture within schools of nursing A non probability convenience sample N 149 of subjects was obtained from BSN schools of nursing within the Southern Regional Education Board geographical area Three data collection tools were utilized including a demographic questionnaire the Multi factor Leadership Questionnaire Bass Avolio which measures transformational transactional and laissez faire leadership styles and the Organizational Culture Assessment Inventory Cameron Quinn which measures four culture types including clan market adhocracy and hierarchy cultures A descriptive correlational design was used Inferential statistics utilized included multiple regressions using analysis of variance and Pearson s correlations Significant relationships were evidenced as follows the main research questions demonstrated that there were statistically significant relationships between the three leadership styles transformational transactional and laissez faire and school organizational culture With each regression analysis based on the significance of the beta coefficient parameter estimate the results showed that measures for transformational leadership had a predictive value for Clan Adhocracy and Market Cultures Transactional leadership was found to have significantly predictive value for Adhocracy and Hierarchy cultures Laissez faire leadership was found to have significantly predictive value for the Adhocracy and Market Cultures DEDICATION I would like to dedicate this dissertation to my beloved family who has been a part of this process since the inception many many years ago My family includes my father Bill Vankovich husband John children Bill Chris Kim and Stephen granddaughters Chey and Jodee and sisters Brenda and Donna I want to especially dedicate this dissertation to the memory of my beloved mother Marjorie Vankovich and Brother Larry Vankovich as well as my grandparents Gazel and Anna Vankovich and Laurence and Cora Moore To all of my family but especially my dear mother I would like to say So much of what I have become is because of you And I want you to know that I appreciate you thank you And love you more than words can ever express Susan Polis Shutz iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank everyone who offered support and encouragement throughout this educational process that began many many years ago My family and friends were always there when I needed them the most Special thanks to Dr Powel Toth my committee chair for all his patience understanding and guidance My heartfelt appreciation goes out to Dr Mike Burton and Dr Jerry Jones for serving on my committee To all three of my committee members for making the oral defense as painless as possible I would like to also thank Dr Eagle for all her assistance these past several years My secretary Mary Wells who just this second saved me from disaster with this word processor I give my praises Finally my friend Dr Paula Reilley who has assisted me by offering her expertise and guidance I want to say thank you To my knowledge I am the first one in my family to complete a doctoral degree Education was always one of our most important family values Two of my siblings have college degrees both in education and all four of my children graduated from the University of Charleston with bachelor degrees My son Bill has earned a graduate degree in counseling from Marshall and daughter Kimberly is pursuing a graduate degree in education I have my parents Bill and Marjorie Vankovich to thank for instilling in me the desire to keep going to keep climbing that scholastic ladder higher and higher Hopefully I have passed on this family value on to my children and they will pass this on to our family generations into the future iv TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ii DEDICATION iii ACKNOWLEGMENTS iv TABLE OF CONTENTS v LIST OF TABLES vii CHAPTER 1 1 INTRODUCTION Introduction 1 Leadership theory 2 Culture theory 6 Conclusion 11 Research questions 12 Assumptions 12 Operational definitions 13 Significance of study 15 Limitations of study 24 Summary 25 CHAPTER 2 27 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Introduction 27 Leadership theory 29 Nursing education leadership 45 Culture theory 57 Summary 83 CHAPTER 3 84 METHODOLOGY Introduction 84 Research design 85 Sample 86 Measurement instrumentation 88 Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire 90 Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument 97 Demographic questionnaire 99 Summary 101 v CHAPTER 4 103 RESULTS Presentation and analysis of data Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics Summary 103 104 107 110 CHAPTER 5 112 SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary of Purpose Research Questions Summary of Procedures Summary of Descriptive Data Summary of Inferential Data Implications Recommendations for Further Research 113 113 113 113 115 117 118 REFERENCES 121 APPENDICES 154 Appendix A Human Subjects Exemption Approval Appendix B Letter to Program Leaders Appendix C Cover Letter Appendix D Instruction Packet Appendix E Demographic Questionnaire Appendix F MLQ Appendix G OCAI CURRICULUM VITAE 155 156 158 159 160 161 162 167 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Demographic profile of participants personal 104 2 Demographic profile of participants work related 105 3 Descriptive statistics of the variables as measured by the MLQ 106 4 Descriptive statistics of the variables as measured by the OCAI 107 5 Multiple regression of leadership styles 108 6 Pearson s correlations between the leadership styles and culture 109 7 Regression of leadership styles on culture 109 vii CHAPTER I Introduction Leadership and culture have been recognized as critical


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