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CSC2515 Lecture 10 Part 2 Making time-series models with RBM’sTime series modelsSlide 3The conditional RBM model (Sutskever & Hinton 2007)Why the autoregressive connections do not cause problemsGenerating from a learned modelStacking temporal RBM’sAn application to modeling motion capture data (Taylor, Roweis & Hinton, 2007)Modeling multiple types of motionShow Graham Taylor’s movies available at www.cs.toronto/~gwtaylorCSC2515 Lecture 10 Part 2 Making time-series models with RBM’sTime series models•Inference is difficult in directed models of time series if we use non-linear distributed representations in the hidden units.–It is hard to fit Dynamic Bayes Nets to high-dimensional sequences (e.g motion capture data). •So people tend to avoid distributed representations and use much weaker methods (e.g. HMM’s).Time series models•If we really need distributed representations (which we nearly always do), we can make inference much simpler by using three tricks:–Use an RBM for the interactions between hidden and visible variables. This ensures that the main source of information wants the posterior to be factorial.–Model short-range temporal information by allowing several previous frames to provide input to the hidden units and to the visible units.•This leads to a temporal module that can be stacked–So we can use greedy learning to learn deep models of temporal structure.The conditional RBM model (Sutskever & Hinton 2007)•Given the data and the previous hidden state, the hidden units at time t are conditionally independent.–So online inference is very easy •Learning can be done by using contrastive divergence.–Reconstruct the data at time t from the inferred states of the hidden units and the earlier states of the visibles.–The temporal connections can be learned as if they were additional biasest-2 t-1 tt)(reconjdatajiijsssw ijWhy the autoregressive connections do not cause problems•The autoregressive connections do not mess up contrastive divergence learning because:–We know the initial state of the visible units, so we know the initial effect of the autoregressive connections.–It is not necessary for the reconstructions to be at equilibrium with the hidden units. –The important thing for contrastive divergence is to ensure the hiddens are in equilibrium with the visibles whenever statistics are measured.Generating from a learned model•The inputs from the earlier states of the visible units create dynamic biases for the hidden and current visible units. •Perform alternating Gibbs sampling for a few iterations between the hidden units and the current visible units.–This picks new hidden and visible states that are compatible with each other and with the recent history.t-2 t-1 ttijStacking temporal RBM’s•Treat the hidden activities of the first level TRBM as the data for the second-level TRBM.–So when we learn the second level, we get connections across time in the first hidden layer. •After greedy learning, we can generate from the composite model–First, generate from the top-level model by using alternating Gibbs sampling between the current hiddens and visibles of the top-level model, using the dynamic biases created by the previous top-level visibles.–Then do a single top-down pass through the lower layers, but using the autoregressive inputs coming from earlier states of each layer.An application to modeling motion capture data (Taylor, Roweis & Hinton, 2007)•Human motion can be captured by placing reflective markers on the joints and then using lots of infrared cameras to track the 3-D positions of the markers.•Given a skeletal model, the 3-D positions of the markers can be converted into the joint angles plus 6 parameters that describe the 3-D position and the roll, pitch and yaw of the pelvis.–We only represent changes in yaw because physics doesn’t care about its value and we want to avoid circular variables.Modeling multiple types of motion•We can easily learn to model many styles of walking in a single model.–This means we can share a lot of knowledge.–It should also make it much easier to learn nice transitions between styles.•Because we can do online inference (slightly incorrectly), we can fill in missing markers in real time.t-2 t-1 ttijstyle labelShow Graham Taylor’s moviesavailable at

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