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MIT 9 56J - Abnormal Language

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9.56, Fall 2004, PROBLEM SET, DUE Tuesday, Sept. 28, 2004 (at beginning of class) Please note: These are not meant to be “tricky” but to help you learn, to let you test your understanding. Answers should be given in a fairly brief manner; no extra points for extra words. Clarity and correctness is most important. We are happy with and encourage working in groups, but all exercises must be written in your own words (no copying or group submissions). As always, note anyone with whom you work. Exercise 1 On the basis of the following tree diagram, decide which of the following statements are true and which are false: CP Spec C` C IP NP I` I VP V` PP V NP P NP Will John – buy a car after the holidays ? (a) IP dominates CP (b) IP immediately dominates the subject NP (c) IP is a sister of C (d) V and the NP a car are sisters (e) The NP the holidays is a constituent of IP (f) The NP the holidays is an immediate constituent of VP (g) VP and I are sisters (h) VP precedes IExercise 2 Consider: (a) Mary has been ill (b) Mary has not been ill (c) *Mary has been not ill (d) Mary is not ill (e) *Mary not is ill Suppose that not starts out in the structure to the left (outside of) the VP. That is, not is a functional item, an instance of a functional category; it starts out outside VP. We know that Mary raises to Spec, IP. How do we account for the pattern in (a) through (e) above? In particular, have and be are Auxiliary verbs (Aux). What does Aux do? Where does it move to? All Aux? (Remember that a head (like Aux) must move to a head position. Which head is available?Exercise 3 Show the X-bar structure (phrase-structure) of the following (include INFL (I) and COMPLEMENTIZER (C): (a) Steven will meet the new maid in the foyer of the opera. (b) Chris prefers for Veronica to win the race (HINT: to is often thought to be the word that is the head of a non-finite clause)(c) She has decided that owners of big cars without children should pay tax. (d) Veronica’s friend hopes that Chris is winningExercise 4 Show the derivation in GERMAN of the sentence: “That cake baked John.” (Meaning the sensible meaning, of course, i.e., John baked that book.). In particular, draw a tree and show the movements.Exercise 5 Norwegian in an SVO/V2 language. For each of the following sentences say whether the sentence is good in the adult language. In each case, why? (Remember that in a V2 language an adverb like “soon” can be the constituent which moves into first position (Spec,C)). +fin means “finite” (1) John leaves (+fin) soon (2) Soon leaves (+fin) John (3) John leave [-fin] soon (4) Soon leave [-fin] John (5) Soon John leaves [+fin] (6) Soon John leave [-fin]Exercise 6 Illustrate Principles A, B, and C of the binding theory with examples of your own, providing three examples for each principle. Principle A Principle B Principle CExercise 7 Consider the following sentences in light of the binding theory as discussed in class. How do you explain their ungrammaticality? (a) *Briani liked [Mary’s picture of himselfi] (b) *Briani’s mother liked himselfi (c) *I expect [himselfi to invite Poiroti]Exercise 8 Consider the following examples. Does the binding theory explain the judgments we indicate? Why? (a) *John requests that himself leave soon. (b) *John longs for Mary to date himself. (c) A picture of himself astonished John (d) Unflattering descriptions of himself have been banned by our president. (e) *Himself astonished John. (f) Joani recognized the necessity for heri to leave.Exercise 9 Discuss the derivation of the following sentences. For each sentence, provide a D-structure representation, an S-structure representation, and discuss the assignment of theta roles and of case. (a) The prisoners have been arrested. (b) Poirot seems to like the countryside. (c) George is thought to have been invited to the court. (d) John is likely to leave soon.Exercise 10 Consider the following sentences. For each sentence we offer some possible syntactic representations. Which one is theoretically justified? Provide evidence. (a) John tried to go. a. [IP Johni tried [CP [IP PROi to go]]] b. [IP Johni tried [IP ti to go]] (b) John appears to be happy. a. [IP Johni appears [IP ti to be happy]] b. [IP Johni appears [CP [IP PROi to be happy]]] (c) John is happy to leave. a. [IP Johni is happy [IP ti to leave]] b. [IP Johni is happy [IP PROi to leave]] c. [IP Johni is happy [CP [IP PROi to leave]]]Exercise 11 Consider the following (ungrammatical) examples. Together, they demonstrate a certain restriction on A-movement. What is this restriction? (a) *A kissi was given Mary ti by John. (b) *Johni seems that Mary likes ti. (c) *Johni seems that hei is believed ti to be happy. (d) *Johni seems that [IP it appears [IP ti to be happy]].Exercise 12 Show the phrase (X-bar) structure and the movements that take place in the following: (a) Which cookie is Mary eating? (b) This is the author whom I like. (c) Which detectives will be invited?(d) Who do you think seems to be nicest? (e) Which ships do you think will


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