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Name Teacher Date j Introduction to Natural ResourcesA History of Conservation in the United States—Reading Guide, KEYPgs 13-24 in Ch.2 of Managing Our Natural ResourcesStudent objectives- Discuss exploitation, conservation, and preservation- Describe the history of conservation in the U.S.I. Exploitation: Using up our natural resources without replacing them. II. People were once few and resources seemed unending. This led to our history of exploitation of natural resources.III. Conservation: The careful use of natural resources to provide as much usefulness as possible to people now and in the future.IV. Wildlife Managementa. The Early Years- The first European settlers wrote of the “incredible numbers” of wildlife and the “millions of millions” of passenger pigeons.- By 1639, hunting regulations on deer were imposed by Newport, Rhode Island- More regulations were imposed, and in 1689 the colonies of Connecticut and Massachusetts imposed limits on deer hunting.- The New York Sporting Club was formed in 1844 to promote wildlife management and restrictions against market hunters.- The first state-administered game and fish commission was created in Massachusetts in 1865.b. Market Hunters- Demand by Europeans and colonists created a business of hunting and trapping fur and meat animals.- Market hunters: People who killed birds and animal to sell their feathers, fur, and meat.- Overhunting led to the extinction of the passenger pigeon and near extinction of the American bison.- Market hunters likely caused less damage than the changes brought on by the ox, the plow, herds of livestock, and fire to the American landscape.c. The Road Back- The Lacey Act of 1900 brought about the end of market hunting.- Farming decreased in the eastern half of the U.S. This allowed the generation of new wildlife habitat.- Game Management, by Aldo Leopold, forms the basis for wildlife management today.- The U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service was established June 30, 1940.- Most conservation efforts and the resulting healthy game and fish populations in the U.S. today have been funded by hunters and sports fishers in the form fees for hunting and fishing.V. Forest Managementa. As early as 5000 years ago, timber shortages were occurring in the world.b. The first U.S. ordinance regulating the sale of timber was passed by the Plymouth Colony in 1626.c. Despite some early attempts at managing forests, most often our U.S. forests were seen as endless resources to be exploited.d. During the settlement period, many forests were simply cleared and burned to make way for farming.e. Timber culture and forestry was promoted by the American Forestry Association, formed in 1875.f. In 1891, forest reserves were created from public-owned land.g. Gifford Pinchot, backed by Theodore Roosevelt, created the U.S. Forest Service in 1905.h. Define the Weeks Law of 1911 and its importance: The law gave the president authority to purchase forest land for river watershed protection. This officially linked forestry with soil and water 1conservation, navigable waterway transportation and flood control. This legislation also led to forest fire prevention and control measures.VI. Soil Conservationa. In the early years of our country, almost every worker was a full- or part-time farmerb. Foresighted farmers from earliest colonial times saw the effects of erosion.c. Three centuries after the settlement of Jamestown saw continual soil abuse. d. Since the 1600s, we have lost at least 1/3 of our topsoil to erosion.e. The Soil Erosion Service was established in 1933 to address erosion control.f. This agency is today known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service.g. Describe a soil and water conservation district: This is an associated of local farmers, businesspersons, and others interested in the conservation of local soil and water resources. h. A program of federal grants assists in the cost of soil conservation and soil-building practices.i. Soil erosion is the main side effect of food and fiber production.j. Soil is our most important nonrenewable resource.VII. Water Managementa. Transportation and Flood Control- In the early years of our country water was the determining factor for where people would live. - In 1882, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts authorized its cities to purchase municipal forests to protect their watersheds.- Early emphasis in this country was not on water conservation- By the late 1920s, the federal government began to assume some responsibility for flood control.- Flooding was a function of two other problems: loss of forest cover and soil erosion.- The deadliest flooding event occurred in 1900 around Galveston, Texas.- Hurricane Katrina was the most destructive storm in U.S. history in terms of costs. - Advance in our understanding of the human body and of medicine have shown the importance of cleaner water supplies.- Another problem that is becoming critical is the distribution of our water


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