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American Democratic Culture

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American Democratic CultureRomanticism in AmericaAmerica Needed a Cultural IdentityTranscendentalistsTraditionalistsThe Democrats – Art for the common manThe SkepticsPortrait ArtistsSlide 9Charles Wilson PealeSlide 11Gilbert StuartHudson River SchoolSlide 14Thomas ColeSlide 16Asher B. DurandImpressionistsSlide 19Mary CassattSlide 21Frederic RemingtonSlide 23Winslow HomerSlide 25James WhistlerSlide 27Matt BradyAmerican Democratic American Democratic CultureCultureRomanticism in AmericaRomanticism in America•Industry and ambition were dominant themes Industry and ambition were dominant themes in American society in the 1830-1850sin American society in the 1830-1850s•People were looking for something differentPeople were looking for something different–Interest in nature Interest in nature –Interest in Native AmericansInterest in Native Americans–Drew on instinct & feelings rather than intelligenceDrew on instinct & feelings rather than intelligence–Jacksonian democracy played into thisJacksonian democracy played into this•Self-confidenceSelf-confidence•Glorification of the ordinary “Cool to be Common”Glorification of the ordinary “Cool to be Common”America Needed a Cultural America Needed a Cultural IdentityIdentity•After the War of 1812, America After the War of 1812, America gained confidence as a nation gained confidence as a nation politically, economically, & militarilypolitically, economically, & militarily–However, American cultural expression However, American cultural expression was in the process of developingwas in the process of developing•America had a distinct culture, sort of America had a distinct culture, sort of a wilderness feel, romantica wilderness feel, romanticTranscendentalistsTranscendentalists•To live a spiritual life you must transcend the five senses To live a spiritual life you must transcend the five senses and live by emotion and intuition…feelings rather than and live by emotion and intuition…feelings rather than facts.facts.–EmersonEmerson•Industrial society bothered him.. made people focus only on Industrial society bothered him.. made people focus only on work and did not allow them to live their lives. work and did not allow them to live their lives. •Walk in the woods is the only religion one needsWalk in the woods is the only religion one needs•People should be self-reliant.. so the less government we have People should be self-reliant.. so the less government we have the better. the better. Very democraticVery democratic–ThoreauThoreau•Wrote Wrote Walden PondWalden Pond – withdrew from society for two years, – withdrew from society for two years, wrote about experiencewrote about experience•Resistance to Civil GovernmentResistance to Civil Government – don’t obey unjust laws – don’t obey unjust laws•Everyone should have a voice, but Everyone should have a voice, but democracydemocracy is dangerous if is dangerous if everyone thinks the same way… concerned that robotic everyone thinks the same way… concerned that robotic lifestyles would do this to people.lifestyles would do this to people.–Painters: Cole, DurandPainters: Cole, DurandTraditionalistsTraditionalists•Believed America was becoming Believed America was becoming disconnected from its past. No antiquity to disconnected from its past. No antiquity to America like there was in Europe. We need America like there was in Europe. We need to remember our roots.to remember our roots.•Washington Irving – Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Rip van Washington Irving – Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Rip van WinkleWinkle–Wrote about the Dutch in New YorkWrote about the Dutch in New York•James F Cooper – finance & banking had no heart, James F Cooper – finance & banking had no heart, Wrote Last of the Mohicans, The DeerslayerWrote Last of the Mohicans, The Deerslayer–writes about heroic Americawrites about heroic America–romanticized life in the wildernessromanticized life in the wildernessThe Democrats – Art for the The Democrats – Art for the common mancommon man•Walt Whitman – poetWalt Whitman – poet–A common manA common man–wrote about down to wrote about down to earth topicsearth topics–He could use common He could use common language poeticallylanguage poetically–Made him very Made him very popularpopular•George Bingham – George Bingham – painted the common painted the common manmanThe Skeptics The Skeptics •These guys lived tough lives and These guys lived tough lives and it came out in their writings.it came out in their writings.–PoePoe•Orphaned at threeOrphaned at three•Haunted by melancholy and Haunted by melancholy and hallucinationshallucinations•One of the earliest detective & One of the earliest detective & science fiction novelistsscience fiction novelists–Hawthorne Hawthorne •Had Puritan sensibilities and Had Puritan sensibilities and believed one must work for believed one must work for salvationsalvation•wrote Scarlet Letter - 1850wrote Scarlet Letter - 1850–Melville Melville •Moby DickMoby Dick•America is Ahab, pursuing America is Ahab, pursuing ambition and it’s breaking the ambition and it’s breaking the country apart.country apart.Portrait ArtistsPortrait ArtistsCharles Wilson PealeCharles Wilson Peale•Portrait of Thomas JeffersonPortrait of Thomas Jefferson•Helped establish the Pennsylvania Helped establish the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine ArtsAcademy of Fine ArtsGilbert StuartGilbert Stuart•Portrait of George Portrait of George WashingtonWashington•Most technically Most technically accomplished early accomplished early American painterAmerican painter•Has a Roman feel – Has a Roman feel – the Republicthe RepublicHudson River SchoolHudson River SchoolRomantic landscapesRomantic landscapesThomas ColeThomas Cole•Romantic landscapesRomantic landscapesAsher B. DurandAsher B. Durand•Painted landscapesPainted landscapes•Hudson River SchoolHudson River SchoolImpressionistsImpressionists•Early Impressionists did not follow Early Impressionists did not follow standard approaches to painting like standard approaches to painting like portrait artistsportrait artists–They used free brushed strokes rather They used free brushed strokes rather than detailed linesthan detailed lines–They tended to paint outside their They tended to paint outside their studios and on locationstudios and on location–Used colorsUsed colorsMary


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