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Sac State EDS 245 - Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

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SOCIAL SKILLS: INTERVENTIONS FOR STUDENTS WITH EMOTIONAL AND BEHAVIORAL DISORDERSPresented by:Luke AndersonTiffany GoodsonRenee RodriguezSOCIAL SKILLS DEFINED “Social skills are the specific behaviors when interacting with others.”Social skill deficiency is a defining characteristic of emotional and behavioral disorders.(Bullis et al., 2001)SOCIAL SKILLS DEFINED Disorders that show an impairment in social skills:| Conduct Problems| Mood Disorders| Anxiety Disorders| Autism Spectrum Disorders| Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD)| Learning Disabilities(Rutherford et al., 2004)EXAMPLESOF ANTISOCIAL BEHAVIORS(Mash & Wolfe, 2002)RISK FACTORS – GENETICS| Twin studies show that a disposition to become anxious is inherited| Studies also show children may inherit a vulnerability for depression| 1/3 of immediate and extended family members of children with AD/HD are also likely to have symptoms| A major cause of autism is biologically based neurodevelopmental disorders| Subtle inherited brain dysfunctions can lead to learning disorders(Mash & Wolfe, 2002)RISK FACTORS – GENETICS| Children with conduct problems show lower verbal IQ than performance IQy A specific and pervasive language deficit may affect receptive listening, reading, problem solving, expressive speech and writing, or memory for verbal materialy These deficits may in turn interfere with development of self-control or an ability to label emotions in others, which may lead to a lack of empathy(Mash & Wolfe, 2002)RISK FACTORS – PERSONALITY| Early difficult temperament puts children at risk of developing later conduct problems| Shy-inhibited temperament is a risk factor for anxiety| Children with deficient emotional regulation are at risk for developing depression(Mash & Wolfe, 2002)RISK FACTORS – FAMILY ENVIRONMENT| Family problems are among the strongest and most consistent correlates of antisocial behavior| Types of family risk factors:y General family disturbancesy Specific disturbances in parenting practices and family functioningy Both are highly interrelatedy Low SES increases risk(Mash & Wolfe, 2002)RISK FACTORS – ADOLESCENCE| Cognitive Characteristicsy Formal operational thought processes including hypothetical thoughts and ability to analyze possibilitiesy Self-awareness including tendencies toward egocentrismy Belief in invincibility fable and imaginary audience| Influence of peers on increase of antisocial behaviorsy 52% of 8thgraders and 80% of high school seniors have drunk alcoholy 44% of 8thgraders and 66% of high school seniors have smoked a cigarettey 22% of 8thgraders have tried marijuana, 41% of high school seniors have tried at least one illegal drugy 2/3 of all recorded youth offenses were committed with 2-3 peers(Berger, 2001; Mash & Wolfe, 2002)RISK FACTORS – ADOLESCENCEIncreased risk for mental health disordersDisorder Prevalence Average OnsetAnorexia nervosa 0.5-1% 14-18 yearsBulimia 1-3% late adolescenceAdolescent-Limited Conduct Disorder2-6% peaks at 17 yearsGeneralized Anxiety Disorder 3-6% 10-14 yearsDepression 20% 15-19 yearsSuicide Attempts 30% of those with depressionfirst attempt: 13-14 years(Mash & Wolfe, 2002)POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF SOCIAL SKILL DEFICIENCIES| Students who are lacking social skills are at risk for:y Aggression y Peer rejection y Lonelinessy Social dissatisfactiony Academic failurey School drop-outy Contact with the legal systemy Substance abusey Difficulty maintaining employment and relationships(Maag, 2006; Rutherford, et al., 2004)SOCIAL SKILL INTERVENTIONS| Social skill instruction should be a component of a group of interventions for students who exhibit internalizing and externalizing behaviorsy Behavior Interventions | Primary (Whole School)| Secondary (Group)| Tertiary (Function Based)y Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy y Interpersonal Therapyy Medical Interventionsy Group and Individual Counseling(Bullis et al., 2001)SOCIAL SKILL INSTRUCTION –PROGRAMSSOCIAL SKILL INSTRUCTION –RATING SCALES AND ASSESSMENTS| Behavioral and Emotional Rating Scale, Second Edition (BERS-2) y (Epstein)| Social Skills Rating System (SSRS)y (Gresham and Elliot)| SkillStreamingy (McGinnis and Goldstein)SOCIAL SKILL INSTRUCTION –WHAT TO INCLUDE| The Steps Involved Vary Depending on the Program| Social Skill Instruction may include:y Definition and Guided Instructiony Identifying Situations when the Skill may be usedy Both Positive and Negative Examples (Modeling)y Role Playingy Performance Feedback and Reinforcement for Skill usey Strategies for Transfer| Social Skill Instruction in high school should include job related social skills(Bullis, 2001; Rutherford, et al., 2004)SOCIAL SKILL INSTRUCTION –TRANSFER AND SELF MONITORING| Transfer of Social Skills does not always occury Multiple periods in middle school/high school may make transfer more problematic (Rutherford, et al., 2004)| Self Monitoring y Self monitoring of social skill use may be a viable intervention in middle school and high school| Research supports the use of self monitoring with teacher matching for middle school students (Lloyd et al., 2006)SOCIAL SKILL INSTRUCTION –EFFECTS| Effects of Social Skill Instructiony Power Ratings| Prosocial Behavior = Small| Problem Behavior = Small| Specific Behaviors| Anxiety = Medium| Adjustment = Small| Cooperation = Small| Interaction = Small| Self-Concept = Small| Aggression = Small(Rutherford, et al., 2004)VIDEO EXAMPLE| The child in this video is listing several examples of antisocial behaviors| He is also demonstrating a teacher’s attempt at using the operant conditioning principal of positive punishment| The punishment is ineffective. This child may benefit from social skill instruction| http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1610270964458187900&q=bart+simpson&total=366&start=0&num=10&so=0&type=search&plindex=0REFERENCESBerger, K.S. (2001). The developing person through the life span. New York, NY: Worth Publishers.Bullis, M.B., Walker, H.M., & Sprague, J.R. (2001). A promise unfulfilled: Social skills training with at-risk and antisocial children and youth. Exceptionality, 9 (1 & 2), 67-90.Horowitz, J.L., Garber, J., Ciesla, J.A., Young, J.F., & Mufson, L. (2007). Prevention of depressive symptoms in adolescents: A randomized trial of cognitive-behavioral and interpersonal prevention programs. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75 (5), 693-706.Maag, J.W. (2006). Social skills training for students with emotional and behavioral


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