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SBU CSE 590 - Revolutionary Applications and New Challenges

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9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Wireless Sensor Networks: Wireless Sensor Networks: Revolutionary Applications and New Revolutionary Applications and New ChallengesChallengesJie GaoComputer Science DepartmentStony Brook University9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05IT growth is rooted in IT growth is rooted in ““MooreMoore’’s Laws Law””• Transistors per chip doubles every 12-18 months– Microprocessors– DRAM9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05The New Power PointThe New Power Point• Microcontrollers: – 1-10 mW active, 1 uW passive => 10-100 uW average • Micro-sensors (MEMS, Materials, Circuits)– acceleration, vibration, gyroscope, tilt, magnetic, heat, motion, pressure, temp, light, moisture, humidity, barometric– chemical (CO, CO2, radon), biological, microradar, ...– actuators too (mirrors, motors, smart surfaces, micro-robots)• Micro-Radios– CMOS, short range (10 m), low bit-rate (200 kbps), 1-10 mW• Micro-Power– Batteries: 1,000 mW*s/mm3, fuel cells– solar (10 mW/cm2, 0.1 mW indoors), vibration (~uW/gm), flow• 1 cm3battery => 1 year at 1 msgs/sec9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Embedded systems on the marketEmbedded systems on the market• Specialized devices and information appliances are replacing the generalist PC– variety of forms: set-top boxes, fixed-screen phones, smart mobile phones, PDAs, NCs, etc.• Traditional systems becoming dependent on computation systems– Modern cars: up to ~100 processors running complex software• engine & emissions control, stability & traction control, diagnostics, gearless automatic transmission• http://www.howstuffworks.com/car-computer.htm• An indicator: where are the CPUs being used?9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Where are the CPUs?Where are the CPUs?Estimated 98% of 8 Billion CPUs produced in 2000 are used for embedded appsWhere Has CS Focused?Where Has CS Focused?Where Has CS Focused?InteractiveComputersInteractiveInteractiveComputersComputersServers,etc.Servers,Servers,etc.etc.200Mper Year200M200Mper Yearper YearIn VehiclesIn VehiclesEmbeddedEmbeddedIn RobotsIn RobotsWhere Are the Processors?Where Are the Processors?Where Are the Processors?Look for the CPUs…the Opportunities Will Follow!Look for the CPUs…the Opportunities Will Follow!Embedded Computers80%Embedded ComputersEmbedded Computers80%80%8.5B Parts per Year8.5B Parts 8.5B Parts per Yearper YearRobotsRobots6%6%VehiclesVehicles12%12%DirectDirect2%2%Source: DARPA/Intel (Source: DARPA/Intel (TennenhouseTennenhouse))9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Sensor networks: networked embedded Sensor networks: networked embedded systemssystems• Distributed systems consisting of small, untethered, low-power nodes capable of sensing, processing and wireless communication.9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Sensor nodesSensor nodes• A large range of possibilities– Millimeter-size custom silicon to PDA-size integrated units.• Choose the right tool for the job– Special-purpose sensor nodes, asset tagssacrifice flexibility for being small and inexpensive. – Generic sensor nodesrich expansion interface for making flexible connections– High-bandwidth sensorsBuild-in processing and communication, e.g., video and voice processing– Gateway nodesBuild a link between sensor networks and traditional networks.9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Platform classesPlatform classes9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Platform classesPlatform classes9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Mica2 mote: a generic sensor nodeMica2 mote: a generic sensor node• CPU• On-board flash memory or external memory• Radio, Antenna• Sensors: temperature, humidity, vibration, seismic, light, position, movement, chemical, etc.9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05MobilityMobility9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05MobilityMobility9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Energy harvestEnergy harvest9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Hardware: the state of artHardware: the state of art• Lots of varieties with different capabilities.• Nodes are becoming smaller and cheaper.• Battery seems to be the bottleneck.9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Why is sensor network interesting?Why is sensor network interesting?A new way of sensing the worldA new way of sensing the world• New technologies of observing the world bring us new discoveries.9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Sensor network applicationsSensor network applications• Long-term, inexpensive, unobtrusivemonitoring or data gathering in hostile, remote, harmfulenvironment or emergent situation.9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Habitat monitoring on great duck islandHabitat monitoring on great duck islandhttp://www.http://www.greatduckislandgreatduckisland.net.net• “At the end of the field season in November 2002, well over 1 million readings had been logged from 32 motes deployed on the island.”petrel9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05  Redwood MicroclimatesRedwood Microclimates• 70% of H2O cycle is through trees, not ground• Complex interactions of tree growth and environment– Effected by and effect the microclimate• Need to understand dynamic processes within the treesSlides made by David Culler9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05State of the ArtState of the Art• Solid understanding of leaf physiology– Good models, good empirical data, good fit• Extension to the entire tree canopy is open problem– Various models focused on particular aspects• Nutrient transport, transpiration, …– Extremely limited empirical basis• Data Dirth– Satellite observations: wide coverage, low resolution, canopy surface– Spot weather stations: single point in space– Instrument elevator: haul data logger along vertical transect– Wide range of sensors: climate, sap-flow, dew, …• Goal: dense monitoring of trees throughout forestSlides made by David Culler9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Wireless MicroWireless Micro--weather weather ‘‘MoteMote’’Slides made by David Culler9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Dense SelfDense Self--Organized Organized MultihopMultihopNetworkNetworkSlides made by David Culler9/1/05 Jie Gao, CSE590-fall05Study FormatStudy Format• Site: Sonoma Coast “Grove of the big Trees”– Near Occidental, CA– Adjacent to winery• Interior and Exterior Trees• 40-50 nodes per tree– Range of elevations– Multiple nodes per level, center and periphery• 25 day duration• 5 min sample interval- all sensors, battery, parent• Ground level weather station, fog sensors• Sap Flow sensors– Internal indicator


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