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CU-Boulder GEOG 1001 - EXERCISE B: TEMPERATURE AND EARTH HEAT BUDGET

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Name: ________________________ Section: ______ Date: ____________Part I: Global Energy PatternsPart II: Global Effects of WaterPart III: Daily Temperature VariationsPart IV: City ComparisonsPart V: State-Wide ComparisonsName: ________________________ Section: ______ Date: ____________EXERCISE B: TEMPERATURE AND EARTH HEAT BUDGETREFERENCE: Textbook: Geosystems: An Introduction to Physical GeographyCh.4 Atmosphere and Surface Energy Balances and Ch.5 Global TemperaturesWebsite references are within the text, or on the class website under Lab B, List of Websites.PURPOSE: The purpose of this web-based laboratory exercise is to review the fate of solar energy as it passes through the earth’s atmosphere and contacts the earth’s surface. We know that temperatures at the earth’s surface vary in space and time. Here we consider the global and local factors that influence temperature, we compare trends throughout a day and throughout a year, and compare temperatures between Colorado Springs and San Francisco. The processes and patterns relating to Earth’s energy budget are visually displayed and expounded upon by the accompanying websites.KEY TERMS AND CONCEPTS: *Hint: Be able to define and compare-contrast each of these terms for your exams!insolation shortwave radiation longwave radiationnet radiation solar constant albedotransmission refraction scatteringreflection isotherm heat storageabsorption heat specific heattemperature continental effect marine effectmean range climographPart I: Global Energy Patterns1) The solar energy that reaches the earth’s surface is either absorbed or reflected. Go to http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/index.html . Take a look at the first image (run the animation), the Net Short-Wave Radiation file. After examining the image, explain the relationship between net shortwave radiation (the images) and insolation?2) Now look at the Net Radiation on the same website, http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/index.html, which combines short and longwave lengths. In the December view, we know from lab A that the Southern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun, and south of the Antarctic circle there is daylight for 24 hours a day, but Antarctica is still barely ‘soaking up’ the sun. One reason for this is that the angle of the sun on Antarctica is still fairly acute. What is 9another reason why Antarctica is only slightly above a positive net radiation at this time of year?.3) The proportion of insolation that is reflected or absorbed varies according to the physical properties (color, texture etc.) of the surface. Albedo is a measure of the reflectivity (intrinsic brightness) of a surface. A surface with high albedo will have high reflection and low absorption of insolation. Use Figure 4.5 on page 93 of your textbook to list some surfaces that have high and low albedo Low High1 1 2 2 Part II: Global Effects of WaterNow, on http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/index.html, go down to the Non-Radiative Components. Read the paragraph next to Change in Heat Storage. Keep in mind, as this paragraph explains, that a positive change in heat storage means that heat is being released from the substance, and a negative change in storage means that the substance is absorbing heat from the atmosphere.4) What is the range of the changes in heat storage of continents throughout the year? 5) What’s the range of the oceans? The reason for this difference is the different specific heats of water and soil/rock. Specific heat is the amount of energy necessary to raise 1 cubic cm of a substance 1 degree Celsius.6) So which substance, continents or oceans, have a higher specific heat?7) Which one of these requires more energy to raise its temperature?8) Which one has a higher heat storage capacity?9) Now, take a look at the Northern Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, and the Arctic Ocean on this website. What is the effect on air temperature of the oceans’ change in heat storage in the months of November to February? (Circle the correct two)Raising or Lowering Moderating or Emphasizing 1010) The specific heat of water is one reason for the effect water has on the continents and global weather in general. Using pages 120-122 in your textbook, what are three other reasons for the oceans moderating effect on temperature compared to the continents?1 2 3. Imagine what the world would be like if water had a lower specific heat and it did not have these three properties. 11) Write a couple of sentences about this world, talking specifically about at least three of these: temperature maximums, temperature minimums, temperature averages, precipitation maximums, precipitation minimums, precipitation averages, length of the seasons, lags between max/min insolations and max/min temps Using what you now know about specific heat, take a look at the global temperatures farther down the http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/index.html page. Notice that both the hottest and coldest places throughout the year are landmasses. Isotherms are lines on a map that connect points of equal temperature and are useful to show temperature patterns. Here, the isotherms are delineated by different colors. Compare North America in December and in June. 12) In December, which direction do the isotherms bend when they enter North America from the Pacific Ocean?North/South13) Which way do they bend in June?North/South This effect on the warmth of the coastal areas relative to the rest of the continent is called the maritime influence, or the marine effect. 14) What is happening?15) What then is the result of the continental effect or continentality?1116) What’s one reason why this pattern is not as clear in the British Columbia/Alaskan panhandle region of North America, or on the South American continent?Part III: Daily Temperature VariationsUse pages 100-102 in the textbook for help in this section.17) At what time of day does the maximum insolation normally occur?18) But, in Boulder in the summer, when is the average maximum daily temperature? 11-1 1-3 3-519) Why?20) The minimum daily temperature generally occurs just at sunrise. Why?Go back to Changes in Heat Storage animation on http://geography.uoregon.edu/envchange/clim_animations/index.html. 21) There are images of the twelve months here, but if there was a group of frames that looked at the daily changes of


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