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UF PHY 4550 - Clarence Birdseye

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Birdseye-Ray-1924bubble chamber - philipp-edmonds - 1960Invention of the Bubble Chambercdms-Mahoney-2002Ted Williams-cohee-2002LT Record-amariutei-2003-08LT Record-Nguyen-2003LT Record-Tang-2003Low Temperature Record Reached in 2003Coldest Place-Nelson-2003Direct Observation of Fermionic Condensates-timmerwilke-(2003)maxwell-1-ADRnitrojet-ackley-2003Supersolid - Hartman - 2004Slide 1alcor vitrification-holton-2005Fe-based SC-Zheng-2008Iron-based Superconductorsuperinsulator-chang-2008LHC-Jackson-2008ligo-Mitryk-2009Sr condensate-SALAS-2009HFI 0.1 K Spacecraft-Simpson-2009JWST-petterson-2009Slide 1bec Sr-Johnson-2009Atomtrapping-Tonti-2009CDMS [Compatibility Mode]CDMS experiment-mora-2009CDMS_Amerman_2009CDMSII Dect-Miller-2003CDMSII Detectors using Cryogenic TechniquesMagnetism Gases - Gonzalez - 2009magneticgas-Russo-2009Transplant-Susil-2009safety-Pitenis-1.pdfSlide Number 1Why are safety reliefs installed on all cryogenic liquid oxygen, nitrogen, argon or carbon dioxide fill hoses?Safeties are not only installed on fill hoses. They are also installed on any cryogenic line that is sealed on both sides. This is because cryogenic liquid trapped in a line will vaporize and expand exponentially, creating tremendous pressure in hoses, piping or tubing. This expanding liquid nitrogen, oxygen, argon, or CO2 can easily build enough pressure to cause the line or hose to explode with great force. This is a danger that is easily overlooked and one that is not obvious to someone without prior knowledge or training. Whether you are filling medical oxygen bases, transferring liquid from one DOT4 vessel to another, or otherwise filling from a bulk source, it is essential to have a relief for expanding vapor. Never forget to be sure the hose you are using to fill has a properly rated safety relief installed somewhere between the valves or other connections that could trap liquid!http://cryonews.blogspot.com/Clarence Birdseye• Designer of freezing equipment, father of frozen food industry in US• 1912-15, field naturalist for US Biological Survey in Canada, saw Eskimosplace fresh fish on ice, expose to wind, freeze solid. Fish thawed and eatenmuch later retained all fresh characteristics (flesh quality, taste)• Realized flash freezing prevented formation of large crystals, no damage tocellular structure of food• Worked to perfect freezing methods from 1917 - 1925• Patent for wax-packing dressed foods in cartons were frozen between twoflat refrigerated surfaces under pressure• 1930 First retail sale of frozen foods, Springfield MA• Contracted production of retail display units for grocery stores• Held 300 patents•Invented by Donald Glaser in 1952•Glaser won the Nobel Prize in Physics for this in 1960•Glaser was POSSIBLY inspired by bubbles in beer•Vessel filled with a clear , superheated liquid•Normally filled with Liquid Hydrogen because of its simplicityand low interference with the high-energy process being studied•Used to detect electrically charged particles•The device uses a piston in a chamber to decrease pressure resulting in bubbles forming. The bubble density is proportional to a particle’s energy loss.•Chamber is in a magnetic field to force the charged particles to move in a helical path.•Led to the discovery of weak neutral current, establishing the electroweak theory•Being replaced by wire chambers and spark chambers.Sources:Cryogenic Engineering Text BookWikipediaTed Williams The infamous baseball player died on July 5, 2002. Although his will stated that he wanted to be cremated, his children decided to have him cryogenically frozen at Alcor, a crogenics facility. Since this time, there has been much controversy over this decision to cryogenically freeze Williams, including a lawsuit by the other siblings, and stories of his frozen head being damaged during a handling process. Celebrities use the technology of cryogenics to suspend their bodies and cells with the possibility of someday being unfrozen and capable of living on.Daniel Amariutei, PHY 6555C, HW1: Lowest temperatures achieved, pK-range. A view into the vacuum chamber where sodium atoms were cooled. 2003: 500pK MIT team headed by Nobel laureate Wolfgang Ketterle, has cooled a sodium gas to 500 picokelvin using lasers and a novel way of confining atoms, which they call a "gravito-magnetic trap" - the magnetic fields act together with gravitational forces to keep the atoms trapped. 2008: 100pK Helsinki University of Technology, YKI-group of the Low Temperature Laboratory has cooled a rhodium sample to 100 picokelvin using an apparatus consisting of several consecutive cooling stages. The central part is dilution refrigerator reaching a temperature of 3 mK, and two nuclear cooling stages utilizing the method of adiabatic nuclear demagnetization (first nuclear stage cools to 50mK and the second nuclear stage cools in the pK range).September 2003 – MIT Team Achieves Lowest Temperature –500 pK• Accomplished by Dr. Wolfgang Ketterle, who discovered Bose-Einstein Condenstate in 1995, and Dr. David Pritchard both from MIT• Cooled sodium gas to 500pK, 6 times lower than the previous record• Used the same process to cool the atoms that led to the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physics shared by Ketterleand his colleagues Drs. Eric Cornell and Carl Wieman from the University of Colorado• To contain the gas, they invented a novel way of confining atoms they termed a “gravito-magnetic trap,” using magnetic fields in conjunction with gravitational forces to contain themSource: http://cua.mit.edu/ketterle_group/Press/press_picokelvin/Universe%20Today%20-%20Coldest%20Temperature%20Ever%20Created.pdfLow Temperature Record Reached in 2003Wolfgang Ketterle and colleagues at MIT have succeeded in cooling a Bose condensate of sodium atoms down to a low temperature six times lower than the previous record for Bose condensates. The lowest temperature the team measured was 450 pK.1As of November 2000, temperatures below 100 pKwere reported at the Helsinki University of Technology. However this was the temperature of nuclear-spin.21. A Leanhardt et al. 2003 Science 301 1513;2. http://ltl.tkk.fi/wiki/LTL/World_record_in_low_temperatures.4.5×10-10Coldest Temperature in Nature Observed• 2003• The Boomerang Nebula• 1K (-272 degrees C)• http://www.esa.int/esaSC/Pr_1_2003_h_en.htmlDirect Observation of Fermionic Condensates (2003)Deborah S. JinLeft: Public Domain picture from


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