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Microbiology

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MicrobiologyNaming MicroorganismsClassificationStaphylococcus aureusCategories of CellsDivisionsBacteriologyBacteriaMycoplasmasChlamydiaRickettsiologyRickettsiaVirologyVirionGroups of VirusesPrionProtozoologyProtozoaFlagellatesAmoebaeSporozoansCiliatesMycologyFungus (Funig)Human Fungal DiseasesOpportunistic Fungal DiseasesMicrobiology“scientific study of microorganisms and their effect on other living organisms”Naming Microorganisms•staphyl = “clustered together”•coccus = “shaped like a sphere or ball”•aureus = “a golden-yellow color” •Staphylococcus aureusClassification•Kingdom•Division or Phylum•Class•Order•Family•*Genus•*Species•“King Phillip Came Over From Great Spain”Staphylococcus aureus•genus = Staphylococcus•species = aureus•italics : not English•genus: abbreviated e.g. S. aureusCategories of Cells•Eukaryotic (“True Nucleus”)–nuclei and cytoskeleton–DNA within the nucleus•Prokaryotic (“Before Nucleus”)–no nuclei and no cytoskeleton–DNA float “freely”–Bacteria and cyanobacteriaDivisions•Bacteriology•Rickettsiology•Virology•Protozoology•MycologyBacteriology•“science that studies bacteria”Bacteria•“a prokaryotic one-celled microorganism of the Kingdom Monera, existing as free living organisms or as parasites, multiplying by binary fission and having a large range of biochemical properties”•pathogenicMycoplasmas•“bacteria of the Mycoplasma genus that are found in humans and have no cell wall; the smallest free-living organisms presently known being intermediate in size between viruses and bacteria”•double-stranded DNAChlamydia•“a large group of nonmotile, gram negative intracellular parasites”•replicate in cytoplasm of host cells•use host’s ATP (Adenosine triphosphate) for energyRickettsiology•“area of science that studies Rickettsia”Rickettsia•“a genus of gram-negative, pathogenic, intracellular parasitic bacteria”•rod-shaped, sphere-shaped, change shape•reproduce within host cell•“arthropod vectors”•tetracycline•sulfonamides encourage growthVirology•“the study of viruses and viral diseases”•Virus: “one of a group of minute infectious agents, with certain exceptions (e.g. pox viruses) not resolved in the light microscope, and characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and by the ability to replicate only within living host cells”•rod-shaped, spherical, polyhedral, tad-poleVirion•individual particle that consists of nucleic acid (the nucleoid), DNA or RNA (not both), and a protein shell (capsid)•viruses do not have ATPGroups of Viruses•bacterial, animal, and plant•classified according to:–origin: reoviruses (respiratory and enteric)–mode of transmission: arboviruses–manifestations: polioviruses, poxviruses–geographic location: coxsackievirusPrion•“small proteinaceous infectious agents (particles) which almost certainly do not have a nucleic acid genome and thereby resist inactivation by procedures that modify nucleic acids”•do not contain DNA or RNA•spongiform encephalopathies•eg: scrapie, mad cow, Creutzfeldt-JakobProtozoology•“science that deals with the study of protozoa”Protozoa•“one celled organisms of the Kingdom Protista- most are unicellular although some are colonists”•“first animals”•most abundant•“normal flora”•Classified: shape and method of motilityFlagellates•smallestAmoebae•“ooze about”Sporozoans•no locomotory extensions•bending, creeping, and gliding•parasitic•“apical complex”: penetrationCiliates•largest protozoa•“hair-like” projections•eat other protozoa and bacteriaMycology•“the branch of science concerned with the study of fungi”Fungus (Funig)•“a group of diverse and widespread unicellular and multicellular organisms, lacking chlorophyll, usually bearing spores and often filamentous”•categories: yeasts, molds, dimorphic•saprophytesHuman Fungal Diseases•categorized by the level of tissue penetration•1) superficial mycoses•2) cutaneous mycoses•3) subcutaneous mycoses•4) systemic mycosesOpportunistic Fungal Diseases•suppressed immune systems•secondary infection due to treatment for original disorder•can be fatal and difficult to


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