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BU CAS LX 522 - Episode 4b. UTAH

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CAS LX 522 Syntax IWe give trees to ditransitivesSlide 3Slide 4Problems continue…Slide 6Some clues from idiomsIdioms in ditransitivesSo V and PP are sisters…Where’s the V? Where’s the OBJ?CausativesDitransitives againA very, very little bit of FrenchSlide 14Slide 15Slide 16Where we areSlide 18Uniformity of Theta AssignmentSlide 20UTAHq-roles and structureSlide 23Slide 24Slide 25Unaccusatives vs. unergativesSlide 27UnaccusativesVP shellsPreviewSlide 31Bill lied.Auxiliary selectionSlide 34Double objectsPat gave Chris a bookTwo kinds of givingTo haveEpisode 4b. UTAHEpisode 4b. UTAH4.3-4.44.3-4.4CAS LX 522CAS LX 522Syntax ISyntax IQuickTime™ and aTIFF (LZW) decompressorare needed to see this picture.We give trees to We give trees to ditransitivesditransitivesYou may recall our You may recall our discussion of discussion of -theory, -theory, where we triumphantly where we triumphantly classified verbs as classified verbs as coming in three types:coming in three types:IntransitiveIntransitive (1 (1 -role)-role)TransitiveTransitive (2 (2 -roles)-roles)DitransitiveDitransitive (3 (3 -roles)-roles)Theta roles go to Theta roles go to obligatory arguments, obligatory arguments, not to adjuncts.not to adjuncts.QuickTime™ and aTIFF (LZW) decompressorare needed to see this picture.We give trees to We give trees to ditransitivesditransitivesYou may also recall You may also recall that we believe that that we believe that trees are binary trees are binary branching, where:branching, where:Syntactic objects are Syntactic objects are formed by Merge.formed by Merge.There’s just one There’s just one complement and one complement and one specifier.specifier.We give trees to We give trees to ditransitivesditransitivesFantasticFantastic, except that , except that these things just don’t these things just don’t fit together.fit together.We know what to do with We know what to do with transitive verbs.transitive verbs.But what do we do with But what do we do with ditransitive verbs? ditransitive verbs? We’re out of spaceWe’re out of space!!OBJVVVPSUBProblems continue…Problems continue…I showed Mary to herself.I showed Mary to herself.*I showed herself to Mary.*I showed herself to Mary.I introduced nobody to anybody.I introduced nobody to anybody.*I introduced anybody to nobody.*I introduced anybody to nobody.This tells us something about This tells us something about the relationship between the the relationship between the direct and direct and toto-object in the -object in the structure. (What?)structure. (What?)Problems continue…Problems continue…The OBJ c-commands the The OBJ c-commands the PP. PP. But how could we But how could we draw a tree like that?draw a tree like that?Even if we allowed Even if we allowed adjuncts to get adjuncts to get -roles, -roles, the most natural the most natural structure would be to structure would be to make the PP an adjunct, make the PP an adjunct, like this, but that like this, but that doesn’t meet the c-doesn’t meet the c-command requirements.command requirements.OBJVSUBVVPP*VPSome clues from idiomsSome clues from idiomsOften idiomatic meanings are Often idiomatic meanings are associated with the verb+object associated with the verb+object complex—the meaning derives both from complex—the meaning derives both from the verb and the object together.the verb and the object together.Suppose that this is due being Merged Suppose that this is due being Merged into the structure together initially.into the structure together initially.BillBill threw a baseballthrew a baseball..BillBill threw his supportthrew his support behind the behind the candidatecandidate..BillBill threw the boxing matchthrew the boxing match..Idioms in ditransitivesIdioms in ditransitivesIn ditransitives, it seems like this In ditransitives, it seems like this happens with the happens with the PPPP..Beethoven Beethoven gavegave the Fifth Symphony the Fifth Symphony to the to the worldworld..Beethoven Beethoven gavegave the Fifth Symphony the Fifth Symphony to his to his patronpatron..Lasorda Lasorda sentsent his starting pitcher his starting pitcher to the to the showersshowers..Lasorda Lasorda sentsent his starting pitcher his starting pitcher to to AmsterdamAmsterdam..Mary Mary tooktook Felix Felix to taskto task..Mary Mary tooktook Felix Felix to the cleanersto the cleaners..Mary Mary tooktook Felix Felix to his doctor’s appointmentto his doctor’s appointment..So V and PP are So V and PP are sisters…sisters…Larson (1988) took this as evidence that Larson (1988) took this as evidence that the V is a sister to the PP “originally.”the V is a sister to the PP “originally.”Yet, we see that Yet, we see that on the surface on the surface the OBJ the OBJ comes between the verb and the PP.comes between the verb and the PP.Mary sent a letter to Bill.Mary sent a letter to Bill.Where is the OBJ? It must c-command the Where is the OBJ? It must c-command the PP, remember. Why is the V to the left of PP, remember. Why is the V to the left of the OBJ when we hear it?the OBJ when we hear it?PPVVWhere’s the V? Where’s the Where’s the V? Where’s the OBJ?OBJ?We can paraphrase We can paraphrase John gave a book to MaryJohn gave a book to Mary as as John caused a book to go to MaryJohn caused a book to go to Mary..Chichewa:Chichewa:Mtsikana ana-chit-Mtsikana ana-chit-itsits-a kuti mtsuku u--a kuti mtsuku u-gwgw-e-egirl agr-do-girl agr-do-causecause-asp that waterpot agr--asp that waterpot agr-fallfall-asp-asp‘The girl made the waterpot fall.’‘The girl made the waterpot fall.’Mtsikana anau-Mtsikana anau-gwgw--itsits-a kuti-mtsuku-a kuti-mtsukugirl agr-girl agr-fallfall--causecause-asp that waterpot-asp that waterpot‘The girl made the waterpot fall.’‘The girl made the waterpot fall.’Suppose that in both cases Merge puts things Suppose that in both cases Merge puts things together in the same way initially:together in the same way initially:[[that waterpot] fall][[that waterpot] fall]CausativesCausativesMtsikana ana-chit-Mtsikana ana-chit-itsits-a kuti mtsuku u--a kuti mtsuku u-gwgw-e-egirl agr-do-girl agr-do-causecause-asp that waterpot agr--asp that


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