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CSUB SOC 472 - kabul

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4Slide 5Major Ethnic & Religious GroupsDefinitionsDefinitions ContinuedRussian InvasionSoviet InvasionRise of the TalibanTaliban ContinuedWomen In AfghanistanWomen under Taliban RuleOne Year After Taliban OverthrowMajor Ethnic & Religious GroupsMajor Ethnic & Religious GroupsPashtuns: Pashtuns: Descended from ancient Hebrews.Descended from ancient Hebrews.Uzbek:Uzbek:Turkish descentTurkish descentTajiks:Tajiks:Persian descentPersian descentHazara: Hazara: Mongol people who Mongol people who remained after the remained after the invasion invasion of Genghis Kahn.of Genghis Kahn.Religion: Religion: 99% Muslim; Hazaras are Shi’ites; 99% Muslim; Hazaras are Shi’ites; small small number of Hindus, Sikhs & Jewsnumber of Hindus, Sikhs & JewsLanguages:Languages:85% speak Pashtu & Dari (Persian dialect) 85% speak Pashtu & Dari (Persian dialect) Turkmen & Uzbek spoken in the NorthTurkmen & Uzbek spoken in the NorthDefinitionsDefinitionsMullahMullah–Most common application = title of religious leader or Most common application = title of religious leader or religious teacher.religious teacher.Fatihah Fatihah –The first chapter of the Muslim book of divine revelation The first chapter of the Muslim book of divine revelation (the Qu(the Quran). ran). TalibanTaliban–Student. Former students of religious training institutes Student. Former students of religious training institutes set up in the 1980s for Afghan refugees in Northern set up in the 1980s for Afghan refugees in Northern Pakistan. Pakistan. –Ethnic composition = Pashtun.Ethnic composition = Pashtun.Definitions ContinuedDefinitions ContinuedJihad (Holy War)Jihad (Holy War)A religious duty to spread Islam by waging war. A religious duty to spread Islam by waging war. Fulfilled by the (1) heart, the (2) tongue, the (3) hand & Fulfilled by the (1) heart, the (2) tongue, the (3) hand & the (4) sword.the (4) sword.1. 1. Purification of one’s heart (battle w/ devil)Purification of one’s heart (battle w/ devil)2.2.& 3. Propagation of Islam through supporting right & 3. Propagation of Islam through supporting right and correcting wrong (communication).and correcting wrong (communication).4.4.Wage war physically against enemies of Islamic faith. Wage war physically against enemies of Islamic faith. Modern Islam emphasizes #1. Sanctions #4 only Modern Islam emphasizes #1. Sanctions #4 only when the faith is in danger.when the faith is in danger.Russian InvasionRussian InvasionThe novel is set against the backdrop of the The novel is set against the backdrop of the Russian invasion and the subsequent rise of Russian invasion and the subsequent rise of the Talibanthe TalibanSoviet invasion & occupation (1979-1989)Soviet invasion & occupation (1979-1989)Taliban emerges after the withdraw of Soviet Taliban emerges after the withdraw of Soviet troops & collapse of Afghanistan’s Communist troops & collapse of Afghanistan’s Communist regime, and subsequent breakdown of civil regime, and subsequent breakdown of civil order.order.Soviet InvasionSoviet Invasion(1964-73) (1964-73) A constitutional monarchy A constitutional monarchy (1973-78) (1973-78) A military coup A military coup established Republic of Afghanistan.established Republic of Afghanistan.Strong economic & military ties to Russia.Strong economic & military ties to Russia.Oppresses Islamic majority.Oppresses Islamic majority.19751975Muslim group began armed insurrectionMuslim group began armed insurrection1975-791975-79Fractions w/in Afghan communist partyFractions w/in Afghan communist party19791979Civil War breaks outCivil War breaks out19791979Russia invades. Fears communist Russia invades. Fears communist destabilization in Afghanistan & fears destabilization in Afghanistan & fears Central Asian provinces are vulnerable to Central Asian provinces are vulnerable to the rise of Islamic fundamentalism.the rise of Islamic fundamentalism.Rise of the TalibanRise of the Taliban1989, Soviets pull out & replace Babrak Karmal w/ 1989, Soviets pull out & replace Babrak Karmal w/ Mohammad Najibullah Mohammad Najibullah Najibullah declares a state of emergency & replaces non-Najibullah declares a state of emergency & replaces non-communist cabinet members w/ communists.communist cabinet members w/ communists.In response, the U.S. & Soviet governments end aid to the In response, the U.S. & Soviet governments end aid to the government & rebels.government & rebels.1992 rebels capture Kabul & force Najibullah out.1992 rebels capture Kabul & force Najibullah out.Mujahideen parties that fought against the communist set up Mujahideen parties that fought against the communist set up an interim governmentan interim governmentFactions & disagreements emerge among mujahideen Factions & disagreements emerge among mujahideen parties.parties.1994, Taliban emerges in response to this situation1994, Taliban emerges in response to this situationMullah Mohammad Omar is the leader, a former mujahideen Mullah Mohammad Omar is the leader, a former mujahideen fighter.fighter.Taliban ContinuedTaliban ContinuedTaliban is the most conservative of Afghanistan’s Taliban is the most conservative of Afghanistan’s fundamentalist Islamic parties.fundamentalist Islamic parties.Northern Alliance (Uzbeks, Tajiks & Hazaras) Northern Alliance (Uzbeks, Tajiks & Hazaras) fought against Taliban rule.fought against Taliban rule.Taliban is harshly criticized by domestic & Taliban is harshly criticized by domestic & international voices.international voices.Upon capture of Kabul the Taliban imposed rule Upon capture of Kabul the Taliban imposed rule by strict Islamic law.by strict Islamic law.Women In AfghanistanWomen In AfghanistanUnder the constitutional monarchy’s (1964-Under the constitutional monarchy’s (1964-1973)1964 constitution women:1973)1964 constitution women:–VotedVoted–Ran for office Ran for office 1964 constitution provided for free & 1964 constitution provided for free & compulsory education at all levels for compulsory education at all levels for males and females.males and females.Women under Taliban RuleWomen under Taliban RuleRead listRead listOne Year After Taliban OverthrowOne Year After Taliban OverthrowGirls School & Ruins of KabulGirls School & Ruins of


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