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CU-Boulder ASEN 5519 - Space Aquariums

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Space AquariumsASEN5519 Space Hardware DesignFall 2003Helen Carson (CATECS)Problem StatementHow and why are aquariums designed for use in space?What are some past and present aquatic habitat designs?What problems are encountered with aquatic experiments?RationaleWhy study marine life in space?Previous research has included:Calcium processes in shellfishSpace motion sickness in fishEffect of microgravity on aquatic embryo developmentOcean ecosystem studiesReproduction in spaceBackgroundAquatic experiments have successfully flown on MIR, Shuttle and ISSTechnology has developed from simple single species experiments to self-sustainable ecological systemsSome experiments rely on several generations of marine species to survive in spaceProven TechnologyExamples of past and present aquatic habitats include:Simple bag experiments, eg Jellyfish KitNASDA Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) CSA Aquatic Research Facility (ARF)German Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (CEBAS)NASA Autonomous Biological System (ABS)Proven Technology - Jellyfish KitEarly aquatic experiment flown in 1991 (STS-40)Two outer bags for containmentSyringe system for adding nutrient and fixativeProven Technology - AAEUFlown on STS-65 in 1994Separate goldfish and newt habitatsLife support system supplies O2, removes CO2 and regulates temperatureFiltration system cleans waste products from waterVideo camera used daily by crew to record behaivor of fish and newtsProven Technology - ARFFlown on STS-77 in 1996 - 10 day missionComplex equipment: contained centrifuge and ability to inject chemical markers into experimentsSyringes specially designed for safe use by crewProvides a complete life support system for several individual mini-aquariums housing small animals flight syringesProven Technology - CEBASFlown on STS-89 and STS-90 in 1998, STS-107 in 2003"State of the Art" fresh water habitat for aquatic animals and plantsFirst flight of a closed life support systemProven Technology - ABS"State of the Art" - developed by Paragon & BioServe for NASACompletely bioregenerative closed life support system:Passive control of nutrients and O2/CO2production/absorption using ecosystem of aquatic plants, animals, microorganismsSuccessfully flown on Shuttle, Mir and ISS for total of 9 monthsProven Technology - ABSHardware Design:Aquarium completely sealed, self-containedThermal control, lighting and video camera provided by middeck locker moduleDesigned to survive intervals without powerfluorescent tube7W at 5000Kvideo camera designed forautonomous recordingtwo 900mL aquariums, eachcontained in twoconcentric Lexancylinders plus third containment layer ofheat sealed AclarGBA-IMCProven Technology - ABSHardware Design:Materials (gas, nutrients) mix via diffusionData acquisition via sensors and digital cameraHeat strips for temperature controlClear containment material and water clarity important for video/data capture100mL air 'headspace' maintained at < 250ppm CO2 and > 22% O2by ecosystemNo crew intervention requiredProven Technology - ABSOther considerations:All species selected must be hardy to pH, O2 concentration and temperature variationsTotal system nutrients are limited so species can survive large nutrient releases (eg. deaths)"Refuge" areas required to protect infant species from being eatenRelies on survival of several generationsKey ProblemsData acquisition - reliable high quality video capture of aquatic habitats:can encounter CCD camera pixel damage due to long durations in space environmentrequire high resolution to adequately capture behavior of small animals Control experiments - complex ecosystems are difficult to reproduce on the ground as a controlSelection of plants and animals to create a stable balanced ecosystem for bioregenerative habitatsTake Home LessonsSpace aquariums are proven technologySeveral generations of marine species have successfully survived in spaceAquariums can use ecological/biological processes for nutrients, O2production, etc, instead of relying on auxillary hardware systemsMarine experiments require thermal control, lighting, and data/video capture equipmentCan be automated to require no or minimal crew interaction using current technologyReferencesABS:www.paragonsdc.com/1B1EABSSpecs.htmMacCallum, Anderson, Pynoter: "The ABS (Autonomous Biological System): Spaceflight Results from a Bioregenerative Closed Life Support System", ICES Paper, 2000MacCallum, Anderson, Pynoter: "The Development and Testing of Visualization and Passively Controlled Life Support Systems for Experimental Organisms During Spaceflight",ICES Paper, 2001 (http://www.paragonsdc.com/1A2Anew01ICES-252.pdf)AAEU: http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/missions/sts-65/sts-65-press-kit.txthttp://lsda.jsc.nasa.gov/scripts/cf/detail_result.cfm?image_id=157AFR: http://www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/csa_sectors/space_science/life_sciences/arf.asphttp://www.space.gc.ca/asc/eng/csa_sectors/space_science/life_sciences/pictures.aspJellyfish Kit: http://lifesci.arc.nasa.gov:591/lsle/fmpro?-db=lsle.fp3&-lay=main&-format= toc.html&-op=eq&public=y&-max=all&-findCEBAS:http://www.fuchs-gruppe.com/ohb-system/SpaceTech/LifeScience/cebas.htmlhttp://lifesci.arc.nasa.gov/lis2/Chapter5_Post_1995_Payloads/Shuttle_Post95/ CEBAS_Profile.htmlNASA Life Sciences Hardware database:


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