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Whose History Should We Teach?

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Whose History Should We Teach?1ByMagda Costantino and Denny HurtadoTeaching NotesRelated Cases: “Waiting Patiently - 500 Years” (Hurtado and Smith) and “Making the High School Diploma Mean /Something” (Smith with Dence and Thacker)Case Objectives: (These apply only when the case is administered with student research as an essential component. See Implementation section below)1. To introduce students to the culture, history, and government of their nearest tribe or tribes.2. To have students learn history of these tribes from the Native American perspective.3. To have students investigate and analyze the impact of federal policy and Euro-American immigration on the Native Americans.4. To understand curriculum change and organizational conflictIssues critical to this case:1. What is history?2. Assimilation3. Self-Governance4. How cultures undergo change from an external force.5. The intent and impact of federal policies towards Native Americans.6. International agreements and treaties.7. What is “culture” and who gets to decides if a particular culture is superior or inferior8. Curriculum change and conflict Learning Outcomes (These apply only when the case is administered with student research as an essential component. See Implementation section below)Students will come to their own understanding of the concept of history.Students will identify and analyze the relationships between historical events.Students will express a point of view and support it by at least three reasons.Students will investigate and understand the following historical concepts and events from the perspective of the U.S. government.- Assimilation1 Copyright held by The Evergreen State College. Please use appropriate attribution when using and quoting this case.1Doctrine of DiscoveryThe Effects of ColonizationMarshall TrilogyRemovalReservation SystemAllotment Act of 1887- Self-GovernanceTreaty NegotiationsNation Within a NationReservation SystemStudents will understand the role of Christianity as a factor in European expansion.Students will understand the following historical concepts and events from the perspective of the Native Americans.- AssimilationDoctrine of DiscoveryThe Effects of ColonizationMarshall TrilogyRemovalReservation SystemAllotment Act of 1887- Self-GovernanceTreaty NegotiationsNation Within a NationReservation System- Washington TreatiesEnd of Treaty-makingExecutive Order TribesSovereigntyStudents will understand how national interests are maintained through international agreements and treaties.Students will understand the concept of federal power.Students will understand the consequences of treaties on the lives of the nations involved.Students will understand the concept of assimilation through education.Students will investigate the federal policy towards the education of Native American tribal people.Students will analyze the significance of Captain R. H. Pratt’s motto: “Kill the Indian andSave the Man.”Students will understand the continuous impact of this policy on contemporary Native American communities.Students will become familiar with Washington State House Bill 1495.Students will incorporate their new knowledge and revisit Essential Question 1.2Intended Audience:High schools and high school faculty so the curriculum can be adapted for grades k-12. Can also be used with college audiences. Implementation:This case can be (and has been) implemented in various ways. Some of the possible activities include the following:Research-based Activities (# 2, 3 -5 below)1. Put students into small groups. Ask them to discuss the following questions: Whatis history? Whose voice should we listen to when studying history? Why? Students will divide into small groups. They will discuss the following questions: What is history? Whose voice should we listen to when studying history? Why?2. Have students research and analyze the historical eras of: discovery, colonization, the Marshall decisions, removal and reservations, the Allotment Act and assimilation and explain patterns of historical continuity and change in this succession of policies in a research paper. Have students write from the perspective of the American Indian tribes.3. Students will be divided into two groups. Group A will develop an argument supporting the position that since the treaties were signed a long time ago, we don’t need to honor them at the present time. Students will defend their positions. Group B will develop an argument supporting the validity of the treaty rights at the present time. Students will investigate the meaning of the following statement:“The right of taking fish at usual and accustomed grounds and stations is further secured to said Indians in common with all citizens of the Territory… together with the privilege of hunting and gathering roots and berries on open and unclaimed lands.”(Treaty of Point Elliot, Article 4, January 22, 1855, Wilkinson,. & The American Indian Resources Institute, 2004, p.107). 4. Students will develop a group concept of tribal sovereignty of the 21st century, and they will defend their positions. This should include the concepts of Self-Governance, nations within a nation, and government-to-government relations.5. Students will research and analyze the history of Native American education as a federal policy. Students will research and discuss the impact of “cultural genocide” on contemporary Native American communities.6. Students will divide into the different roles in the case and form a strategy to present that point of view before an audience of possible decision-makers in this situation (School Board, principal, colleagues). Description of Field Testing:As of December 1, 2006, this case had been field tested 7 times with different types of audiences: including Native and non-Native students and faculty. 3Seminar/discussion: We first administered the case study to a group of 36 K-12 teachers at the National Education Association conference in Orlando in June of 2006. We dividedthe group into four small groups. After they read the case, they were asked to reach a group consensus about what should Mary Kramer do? Nobody in this audience had any real knowledge of Native American history. After a short expression of concern about what had happened to the Native Americans in American history, they turned the conversation to themselves and what they knew. They then talked about their perspectives of the plight of students of color


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