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UNCW PLS 333 - Revolution and Change in Latin America

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Revolution in Latin AmericaMajor Revolutionary MovementsSouth American MovementsCaribbean and Central American MovementsColombiaColombian PoliticsFARCELNAUCSlide 10Slide 11Slide 12Revolution in Latin AmericaConflict, Chaos and Cocaine in ColombiaMajor Revolutionary Movements“Revolution” goal:Transformation of oppressive societal structuresMost movements in Latin America aspire to transformation but fail to achieve this goal.Three periods:Independence – elite “revolution”Influence of Fidel (1959-90 to Sandinista defeat)Individuals – new social movements (indigenous)South American MovementsArgentinaMonteros/Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo (ERP)BoliviaMovimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario (1952-1964)Túpac Amaru (1780 sporadic – throughout Andes)Colombia (1964-Present)Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarios de ColombiaEjército de Liberación NacionalQuintín LameAuto-defensas Unidas de ColombiaM-19Partido Revolucionario de los TrabajadoresPeru Sendero Luminoso (1980)Hugo BlancoUruguayTupamarosCaribbean and Central American MovementsCuba26th of July Movement 1959-PresentEl SalvadorFarabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN), 1980-1992.MexicoMexican Revolution 1910Chiapas, Zapatistas – Ejercito Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, 1 January 1994NicaraguaSandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), 1979-1990ColombiaLa Violencia 1948-1958.Power sharing agreement to end conflict.Emergence of multiple “revolutionary” groupsFARC (Revolutionary Army of Colombia 1964)ELN (National Liberation Army 1964)AUC (United Self Defense Forces of Colombia)EPL (Popular Liberation Army 1965)M-19 (April 19th Movement)Colombian PoliticsTwo party systemLiberals and Conservatives Organized to prevent legal dissent.1956 National FrontBelisario Betancur1983 peace talks.FARC forms Patriotic Union (political branch)Congressional defection – 1986 government crackdownMid-1990sTwo front war: Cocaine cartel and FARC.Defeat of cartel = financial opportunity for FARC.Government use of paramilitary de-legitimizing.Alvaro UribeHardline new president of ColombiaBush administration 2007-2008 budget proposes increased funding while all other Latin American countries will be cut.FARCRoots in repressed coffee labor movement.Coffee laborers supported by Colombian Communist Party. Assassination of Jorge Gaitán, Cuban revolution inspiration moves movement beyond self-defense to “revolution”. Retains nominal support of Marxist goals today.Governed by a general secretariat led by longtime leader Manuel Marulanda (a.k.a. “Tirofijo”/Sureshot).Organized along military lines and includes several units that operate mostly in key urban areas such as Bogotá (present in 60% of municipal areas 2005).Funded with coca “taxes” – demise of Escobar 1993ELNNational Liberation Army1965: Marxist insurgent group, formed by urban intellectuals inspired by Castro and Guevara.Primary opposition to FARCLeader Felipe Torres.AUCUnited Self-Defense Forces/Group of Colombia (AUC) formed in 1997 to protect economic interests and combat FARC and ELN insurgents. Supported by economic elites, drug traffickers, and local communities lacking effective government security and claims its primary objective is to protect its sponsors from insurgents. Frequently aided by Colombian military (clandestine)Leader Carlos Castano, negotiating to

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