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Revolutions in Russia

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©McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.CHAPTER 14 REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM147Name ______________________________________________________________ Date ______________________CHAPTER 14 Section 1 (pages 433–439)In the last chapter, you read about World War I.In this section, you will learn about the revolutions in Russia that occurred at the same time.AS YOU READUse the time line below to take notes on key events in Russia’s history just before, during, and after the revolutions.TERMS AND NAMESproletariat The workersBolsheviks Group of revolutionariesled by LeninLenin Leader of the Bolsheviks andfirst ruler of the Soviet UnionRasputin Eccentric monkassassinated because of his corruptinfluence on the Russian royal familyprovisional government Temporarygovernment led by AlexanderKerenskysoviet Local governing councilCommunist Party A political partypracticing the ideas of Karl Marx andLeninJoseph Stalin Revolutionary leaderwho took control of the CommunistParty after LeninRevolutions in RussiaBEFORE YOU READCzars Resist Change (page 433)How did Alexander III rule?In 1881 Czar Alexander II was killed by radicalstudents. When a new czar, Alexander III, tookcontrol of the Russian government, reformsstopped. He cracked down on anyone who seemedto threaten his government. He also mistreated allnon-Russian peoples who lived within the Russianempire, especially Jews. Nicholas II, the son ofAlexander III, continued his father’s firm rule. 1.How did Alexander and Nicholas rule?Russia Industrializes (page 434)What changes did industrializationcause?Russia started a buildup of industry. It quicklybecame a leading producer of steel. Russia alsobuilt the Trans-Siberian Railway—the longest con-tinuous rail line in the world. Although there was progress, working condi-tions were poor, wages were low, and children wereforced to work. Workers grew angry. Revolutionarygroups wanted to overthrow the government.Some followed the teachings of Karl Marx. Onegroup—the Bolsheviks—was led by Lenin. Hefled Russia a few years later to await a better timeto put forth his ideas.November 1917March 1917 19211881Alexander III stops reforms in Russiamwh10a-RSG-0414_P1 12/16/2003 11:14 AM Page 147©McDougal Littell Inc. All rights reserved.148 CHAPTER 14 SECTION 12. Who were the Bolsheviks?Crises at Home and Abroad (pages 434–435)What crises did Russia face?In early 1905, the Russian army killed hundreds ofhungry workers who had peacefully gathered to askfor relief. Strikes spread in protest. Nicholas wasforced to allow some reforms to take place. Heapproved the creation of the Duma, Russia’s firstparliament.The suffering caused by World War I was thefinal blow against the czar’s rule. As the war wors-ened, the czar lost control of Russia. Soldiersrefused to fight, prices shot sky high, and peoplestarved. Meanwhile, his wife fell under the influ-ence of an odd monk named Rasputin. He spreadcorruption throughout the government.3.What developments helped lead up to the revolution?The March Revolution (pages 435–436)What was the provisional government?In March 1917, the czar was forced to step down.A year later, he and his family were executed. Aprovisional government led by AlexanderKerensky was formed.Kerensky hoped to keep Russia in the war. Thedecision cost him the support of soldiers who nolonger wanted to fight. He also lost the support ofworkers and peasants who wanted an end to foodshortages. Across the country, these forces formedlocal councils called soviets. In some cities, the sovi-ets had more real power than the government. In themiddle of all this change, Lenin returned to Russia.4.How did Kerensky lose support?The Bolshevik Revolution (pages 436–438)Who led the Bolshevik Revolution?Lenin’s slogan “Peace, Land, and Bread” was soontaken up by many people. In November 1917,armed workers took control of government offices.Kerensky’s power came to an end.To win the peasants’ support, Lenin ordered allfarmland be given to them. Workers were givencontrol of the factories. Soon, Lenin agreed to apeace treaty with Germany. It gave away largeamounts of Russian land, but it ended the war.Then, forces opposed to Lenin’s revolution tried todefeat the Bolshevik army. The civil war lasted twoyears. The fighting and the famine that followedkilled 15 million Russians. In the end, Lenin’s RedArmy won.5.Who fought the civil war?Lenin Restores Order; StalinBecomes Dictator (pages 438–439)How did Lenin bring back order?In 1921, Lenin started a new plan to rebuild theRussian economy. It allowed for some private own-ership of property. He also changed the govern-ment to form a new nation—the Soviet Union. Itwould be run by the leaders of the CommunistParty. By the late 1920s, the Soviet economy hadrecovered. Farms and factories were producing asmuch as they had before World War I. AfterLenin’s death Joseph Stalin took power.6.What changes did Lenin make?mwh10a-RSG-0414_P2 12/16/2003 11:14 AM Page


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