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Cal Poly Pomona PSY 402 - Theories of Learning

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PSY402 Theories of LearningExtinctionWhat Influences Extinction?Spontaneous RecoveryConditioned InhibitionOther Kinds of InhibitionDisinhibitionHigher-Order ConditioningSensory PreconditioningVicarious ConditioningPSY402Theories of LearningWednesdayJanuary 22, 2003ExtinctionExtinction – a method for eliminating a conditioned response.Extinction paradigm:Present the CS alone (without the UCS).With repeated exposure to the CS, it stops being a predictor of the UCS and the CR decreases and eventually stops.What Influences Extinction?The total duration of exposure to the CS alone, not the number of trials, determines how fast the CR is extinguished.Shipley measured effects of tone-shock pairing on water licking.Suppression ratio for licking behavior100 sec or 25 sec exposures to CS alone.Spontaneous RecoveryPavlov – extinction is caused by inhibition of the CR.Spontaneous recovery occurs when inhibition is temporarily removed.Continued experience of the CS without the UCS results in long-term suppression of the CR.Conditioned InhibitionCS+ the original CSCS- a new CS similar to CS+Presentation of CS- without the UCS inhibits the CR.The idea is that CS- becomes associated with the absence of the UCS – it becomes an “all clear” cue.CS+ is associated with presence of the UCS.Other Kinds of InhibitionExternal inhibition – presence of a novel cue during conditioning inhibits the CR.Latent inhibition (learned irrelevance) – not really inhibition.Preexposure to the CS (without the UCS) inhibits later conditioning (+ or -)Inhibition of Delay – the CR is withheld until an appropriate time.DisinhibitionDisinhibition – removal of inhibition.The CR increases in strength.Presentation of a novel stimulus during extinction interrupts it.Example: Kimmel – disinhibition of inhibition of delay occurred with a novel stimulus.CR with withheld 4.0 secs but 2.3 secs with a novel stimulusHigher-Order ConditioningA new stimulus (CS2) acquires the ability to produce a CR because it is paired with another CS (CS1).The CR to CS2 is weaker than to CS1 – 50% as strong.Higher-order conditioning is difficult to accomplish because conditioned inhibition also arises.More pairings result in inhibition.Sensory PreconditioningWhen two stimuli are associated with each other, if one becomes a CS, the other will become a CS too.Dog and neighbor example.To get the strongest CR:Timing is important – first CS must precede second CS.Only a few CS-CS pairings to prevent learned irrelevance.Vicarious ConditioningBerger – people hearing a tone and watching another person be shocked acquired a fear response.Watching another person fail at a task can induce a stress response.Monkeys can acquire vicarious fear responses to objects or snakes.Arousal is needed for


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