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DSU CHEM 1010 - Chemistry 1010

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Slide 1Slide 2Slide 3Slide 4Slide 5Slide 6Slide 7Slide 8Slide 9Slide 10Slide 11Slide 12Slide 13Slide 14Slide 15Slide 16Slide 17Slide 18Slide 19Slide 20Slide 21Slide 22Slide 23Slide 24Chemistry 1010Elements, Compounds, and MixturesHow atoms are combined to make substancesReviewWho first organized the Periodic Table of Elements?Dmitri MendeleevWhat happens across the rows?What are the rows called?What do the columns have in common?What are the columns called?atomic number and mass get largerperiodselements with similar propertiesfamiliesWhat does it mean for something to be periodic?properties have repeating patternsWhat information does each block of your Periodic Table contain?atomic number, symbol, name, atomic massWhat is the smallest and largest transition metal?What is the smallest and largest inner transition metal?What is the smallest main group metal?What is the smallest and largest nonmetal?What is the smallest and largest alkali metal?What is the smallest and largest element in the 5th period?Sc, CnCe, LrLiH, Rn (Uuo?)Li, FrRb, XeWhat is the smallest and largest halogen?What is the smallest and largest noble gas?What is the smallest and largest alkaline earth metal?F, At (Uus?)He, Rn (Uuo?)Be, RaGive the atomic numbers and masses of the following elements:antimony – tellurium – iodine – xenon – 51 121.7652 127.6053 126.9054 131.29Which is better to use to organize the Periodic Table, mass or atomic number?atomic numberWhich would you expect to have properties similar to sulfur?phosphorus selenium chlorine oxygenWhich would you expect to have properties similar to strontium?calcium rubidium yttrium bariumNow that we have talked about atoms, elements, and the Periodic Table, we are ready to discuss how atoms are combined to make the actual substances that we see around us.waterH2OsandSiO2sun tanlotionC7H7NO2oxygenO2IntroductionEach of the following boxes represents the atoms found in oneof the substances below. See if you can match them up.oxygen gasgoldtable saltwaterbronzechlorinatedwaterbronzeoxygen gastable saltchlorinatedwaterwatergoldWhat differences and similarities can you find between the identity and arrangements of these atoms?some contain only one element, others contain more than oneone contains ionssome atoms are connected to each other, some are notsome have a set ratio of elements, some do notPure elementsgoldWhich of the examples above are pure elements?oxygen gasHow could you recognize other examples of pure elements?only one kind of atom is presentWhat difference do you see between these examples?one has individual atoms, one atoms held togetherin moleculesWhat other elements would have individual atoms like gold?all metals have individual atoms like goldall of the noble gases have individual atoms as wellThese atoms are not held together by chemical bonds.ironneonWhich elements would have molecules like oxygen?elements with diatomic molecules: hydrogen, nitrogen,oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodinechlorine gaselements with more complex molecules: boron, carbon,silicon, phosphorus, sulfur, arsenic, selenium, telluriumdiamondgraphiteThese atoms are held together by chemical bonds.Individual atomsdiatomic moleculescomplex moleculesindividual atoms: diatomic molecules: complex molecules: all metals, noble gaseshydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and the halogensall other nonmetalsHow can you find these on the Periodic Table of Elements?Compounds and mixturesWhat is the difference between the examples on the left and on the right?pure elementscontain more than one elementWhich of these are pure elements, and which are not?What is the difference between these examples on the left andon the right?same ratio of elementsdifferent amounts of each elementcompoundsmixturestable saltwaterbronzechlorinatedwaterCompounds always have the same ratio of elements. We canshow this using a formula.table saltwaterH2O two hydrogen atoms, one oxygen atomNaCl one sodium atom one chlorine atomAre these atoms held together by chemical bonds?yes!covalent bondsionic bondsHow can you tell which compounds will have covalent bonds,and which will have ionic bonds?H2ONaClcovalent compoundscontain only atoms whichare nonmetalsionic compoundscontain metaland nonmetal atomsWhich of the following are ionic, and which are covalent?rustvitamin Cbaking sodaFe2O3C6H8O6NaHCO3ionic compoundcovalent compoundionic compoundcovalent compoundsugarC11H22O11Mixtures, on the other hand, do not have a set ratio of elements.bronzealloysWhat is bronze made of?mixture of copper and tinCan it have more or less tin and still be bronze?yesAre the atoms arranged in any order?noAre the atoms connected by chemical bonds? noWhat are mixtures of metals called?chlorinatedwaternoWhat does chlorinated water contain?chlorine and waterCan you have more or less chlorine?yesAre the atoms connected by chemical bonds?yes – in both H2O and Cl2Are the molecules in any particular arrangement?elemental substancescompoundsmixturesindividual atomscomplex moleculescovalent compoundsionic compoundsHere is one way to represent how all of these categories are related:all substancesdiatomic moleculesSumming upPure Elements:CompoundsMixtures● only one kind of atom● may be individual atoms, ● two or more elements● atoms are bound together by chemical bonds● have a formula (fixed ratio of elements)● two or more elements● not all atoms held together by chemical bonds● don't have a formula (any ratio of elements possible)or held together by chemical bondsCovalent compounds: ● contain only nonmetals● atoms are joined together by covalent bonds● form moleculesIonic compounds: ● contain a metal and one or more nonmetals● atoms are held together by ionic bonds● form ions (not molecules)Remember our analogy with the Legos?mixture (alloy)pure element(complex molecule)covalent compoundpure elementdiatomic moleculeionic compoundpure elementindividual atomsIdentify the kind of substance represented by the following Legos.Remember the analogy with letters?Match up the descriptions below with one of the letter combinations. Vowels represent nonmetals, and consonants represent metals.covalent compoundionic compoundpure element - diatomic moleculespure element - individual atomsmixture - alloypure element - complex moleculesmixture other than an alloyk k k k k k k k k k oo oo oo oo oo aaaaa aaaaaiai iai iai iai iaiseseseseser m r m m r m r r miai xo iai iai xo xo


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