MIT HST 722J - Gamma Oscillations (6 pages)

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Gamma Oscillations



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The Role of Gamma Oscillations in Object Representation The perceptual binding problem was first formulated by von der Malsburg 1981 who asked how different features of an external object are bound together to form a coherent representation of that object Take for example a police car fast approaching from behind The location of the police car the sound of the siren and eventually all the visual features of the car are all dynamically changing with respect to the rest of the scene and must be grouped together to form a dynamic yet coherent percept in order for that information to be translated into a meaningful action moving to the side of the road The above example actually illustrates several types of binding one for the auditory features one for the visual features one to bring the auditory and visual features together and finally the binding of the object to a behavioral response I will discuss mainly the first three types of binding From a neuronal point of view the binding problem is extended with the generally accepted notion that different features of an object are represented with different spatiotemporal patterns of neuronal activity How each feature s respective neural patterns are bound together still generates much discussion and is thought to be a major unsolved problem in neuroscience Roskies 1999 Buzsaki 2006 The first neurophysiological theory attempting to solve the binding problem was provided by Hubel and Wiesel who postulated a hierarchy of anatomically connected neural assemblies processing more and more complex features of a visual object The theory in its most extreme form culminates in either a single neuron or a single population of neurons which invariantly encode a single object There is some support for the theory mainly in the visual system probably because more scientists study it than other sensory systems Ungerleider and Mishkin 1982 The hierarchy theory as some point out also has at least one major hole in it 1 The possible number



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