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Cell Structure



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Cell Structure Kathy Huschle Northland Community and Technical College Cells fundamental units of all living systems are a self contained system only come from pre existing cells Comparison prokaryotic cells vs eukaryotic cells similar in chemical composition and chemical reactions prokaryotic cells lack membrane enclosed organelles including a nucleus eukaryotic cells have membrane enclosed organelles and a membrane bound nucleus prokaryotic cell walls contain peptidoglycan eukaryotic cell walls do not Cell Structure Prokaryotes prokaryotes contain cytoplasmic membrane cytoplasm cell wall external cell wall surface layers filamentous protein appendages internal structures Prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane semi permeable barrier encloses the cytoplasm regulates flow into and out of cell selective permeability Plasma Membrane Prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane composed of a phospholipid bilayer embedded with protein Prokaryotic cytoplasmic membrane 2 parts to the phospholipid molecule phosphate hydrophilic attracted to water lipid hydrophobic repelled by water membrane proteins passageway for larger molecules act as sensors for the cell allowing it to adjust to it s changing environment Transport Across Cytoplasmic Membrane osmosis solute is restricted water will move until equilibrium is reached high to low concentration Transport Across Cytoplasmic Membrane plasmolysis cells shrink lysis cells burst Transport Across Cytoplasmic Membrane diffusion concentration gradient high to low substance move from high concentration to low concentration move until equilibrium is reached Facilitated Transport Across Cytoplasmic Membrane facilitated diffusion passive transport substances are moved by transporter proteins from high to low concentration active transport substances are moved by transporter proteins from low to high concentration cell has to expend energy for this to happen group translocation molecules are chemically modified during passage across cytoplasmic membrane



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