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Preliminaries



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Statistics and Quantitative Analysis U4320 Segment 1 Introduction Prof Sharyn O Halloran Preliminaries n Professor Sharyn O Halloran n Office Hours Wednesday 9 00 to 11 00 n Contact information n n n Office 727 IAB E MAIL SO33 columbia edu PHONE X4 3242 Overview n n n How to describe numerical data How to make inferences about populations from samples How to evaluate the relation between variables factors or events Example 1 Education n Main Finding n Black and Hispanic students are far less likely to attend college than are white students Example 1 Education cont n Dependent Variable n What is the phenomenon to be explained n n Here it is the percent of minorities enrolled in college Independent Variable n What factors might help explain this phenomenon n We can think of many Example 1 Education cont n Evidence n n n 34 of Whites 18 24 were enrolled in college in 1991 24 of Blacks 18 24 were enrolled in college in 1991 18 of Hispanic 18 24 were enrolled in college in 1991 Example 1 Education cont n How would you represent this data graphically Attending White 40 Black 30 Hispanic 20 10 0 Category Percent Attending College by Category Example 1 Education cont n Measurement Problems n What does 34 represent n What is the reference group n What is the sample population Example 1 Education cont n What is the causal relation between race education n n Education is the dependent variable or the thing to be explained Race is the independent variable or the causing factor n This is a causal model or a path diagram n Simplest model Race Independent Education Dependent Example 1 Education cont n What does the article suggests Race Income Education Independent n Dependent Income is an intervening variable n n Intervening Because minorities tend to have lower incomes they are less able to afford education Implication n Race affects education via income Example 1 Education cont n Policy Prescription n n Article argues that to improve educational attainment need to ensure



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