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ELECTORAL INSTITUTIONS,



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ELECTORAL INSTITUTIONS HOMETOWNS AND FAVORED MINORITIES Evidence from Japanese Electoral Reforms By SHIGEO HIRANO I INTRODUCTION W HY do legislators choose to represent particular constituencies and why do they support particular policies The conventional wisdom in the literature is that these decisions are influenced by the incentives associated with particular electoral institutions 1 However despite the extensive literature linking electoral institutions and legislators behaviors there are relatively few empirical studies that clearly identify the influence of electoral institutions on the constituencies legislators choose to represent and the policies they choose to support Some studies of recent electoral reforms find little difference between candidates electioneering behaviors before and after changes in various I thank James E Alt Jasjeet S Sekhon James M Snyder Jr Scott Ashworth Dawn M Brancati John D Huber Christina Davis Yoshiro Miwa Susan J Pharr Frances Rosenbluth and Ethan Scheiner for valuable comments and advice I also thank seminar participants at Harvard Princeton NYU Notre Dame Cornell UC Davis Washington University and the University of Tokyo for helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper I thank the Center for Basic Research in the Social Sciences the Harvard Reischauer Institute the Center for the Study of Democratic Politics and the NYU Politics Department for financial and institutional support 1 See for example Barry Ames Electoral Strategy under Open List Proportional Representation American Journal of Political Science 88 March 1995 Bruce Cain John Ferejohn and Morris Fiorina The Personal Vote Constituency Service and Electoral Independence Cambridge Harvard University Press 1987 John M Carey and Matthew S Shugart Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote A Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas Electoral Studies 14 December 1995 Gary W Cox Electoral Equilibria under Alternative Voting Institutions American Journal of Political



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