Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide

Study Guide
University of Southern California
Bisc 307l - General Physiology
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BISC 307L 1st Edition Exam 1 Study Guide I. EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES  Extra information that is useful: Blackboard resources he posted  1. What are the five features of physiological control systems? o 1. Tonically Active o 2. There is a “set point” that can be altered (i.e. body temperature) o 3. They are redundant and antagonistically arranged o 4. They anticipate change o 5. Positive feedback brings about positive change  2. What are the basic principles of EVOLUTION? o A. Evolution is decent with modification o B. Outcome is an organism matched to its environment o C. This matching optimizes reproductive successcalled FITNESS. Results within a population optimize average fitness o D. Results do not optimize life span or general health o E. Natural selection is driving force  3. What were Darwins 5 observations? o 1. Species produce more offspring than the environment can support o 2. There is always variation within a population with the ability to compare for resources, survive, and reproduce o 3. Some variation is inherited due to mutations, recombinations, and epigenetic modifications o 4. Natural selection happens because of these differences o 5. Selection leads to evolution in population  4. Define FITNESS o the probability that ones genes will be passed on to the next generation. Selection can only maximize reproductive fitness. Does not require long life  5. What is the difference between the proximate and ultimate reasons for why we get sick? o Proximate reasons: pathophysiology, looking at the specific mechanisms of how we get sick o Ultimate reasons: Why has evolution left us so vulnerable to disease? (Evolutionary medicine)  6. What are the 4 ultimate reasons for why our bodies are vulnerable to disease? o 1. Selection is about fitness not health and well being o 2. Constraints and tradeoffs inevitable and we must work with what we had before (bislagiatt) o 3. Human evolution is too slow to cope with challenges of changing environment  we are not evolving in isolation but in concert with our pathogens and predators o 4. Our evolved defenses may be harmful or seem harmful  i.e. allergic reactions, autoimmune disease, fever  7. What are 5 examples of human design flaws and why do we still have them? o 1. Humans are bipedal and have large brains but small pelvis  Compromise: big brains mean babies head is big but cannot be fully developed because babies are altricial. Narrow pelvis allows us to stand upright but is just wide enough for underdeveloped baby brain o 2. The appendix isn’t necessary  Was probably used to help digest cavemen food at one time o 3. We cannot synthesize vitamin C  due to our ancestors eating a lot of fruit o 4. Our retina is inside out and light must pass through upside down to get to the light sensitive cells  nerves and blood vessels supply from the outside o 5. We have a crossing of esophagus and ...

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