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chapter 9 Learning Learning Objectives 1 What are the two types of stimuli and responses that form the basis of classical conditioning Behaviorism Part of the LEARNING PERSPECTIVE Focus on observable behaviors rather than what goes on in the mind The environment determines our behaviors Conditioning the association between environmental stimuli and behavioral responses Learning conditioning Classical conditioning Operant conditioning John Watson Founded behaviorism Psychology should only consider observable behaviors so humans can be studied objectively chapter 9 John Watson Famous Quote Give me a dozen healthy infants well formed and my own special world to bring them up in and I ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select doctor lawyer artist merchant chief and yes beggar man and thief regardless of his talents penchants tendencies abilities vocations and race of his ancestors chapter 9 Definitions What is Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience What is Conditioning The association between environmental stimuli and the organism s responses chapter 9 Classical conditioning The process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar response chapter 9 Classical conditioning Ivan Pavlov studies on dog salivation observed that dogs salivated BEFORE food was placed in its mouth conditional reflex Translated into conditioned chapter 9 Classical Conditioning Unconditioned stimulus US Elicits a response in the absence of learning Unconditioned response UR The reflexive response to a stimulus in the absence of learning S R Pair that is instinctive innate chapter 9 Classical Conditioning Learning occurs when a neutral stimulus is then regularly paired with an unconditioned stimulus chapter 9 Classical Conditioning Conditioned stimulus CS An initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a



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