The Cold War Begins

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The Cold War Begins

Lecture Note
Texas A&M University
Hist 106 - History Of The U S
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The Cold War Begins  Divisions of Europe o How to deal with Germany o Potsdam Conference  Truman attended  Divided Europe o Berlin  Divided up into four occupation zones  Soviet Union  Stalin dismembers a lot of factories in east Germany and has them shipped back to USSR  Promises of democratic elections are subverted by communists (soviets)  Communist receive positions in cabinet  Minister of the Interior: goal position if you’re planning to take over. Communists in this position o Iron Curtain  Winston Churchill gives a speech at Westminster College in 1947 and says that an iron curtain is being stretched across Europe.  The spread of communism o Greek Civil War  1946-1949 o Containment  George Kennan: If you contain communism it will collapse on itself o Truman doctrine  If a nation is threatened by communist overthrow from within or without, that the United States will help sustain them through democracy  The democracy thing becomes kind of optional  Like Greece or Italy  The reason a US aircraft carrier stopping in a country is to make a statement. We’d dock in Greece for like a week.  Throughout the Cold War, we end up supporting some very bad people because they are not communist  They may have dictators  Support torture, etc.  Not all military related but financial stability to help prevent communism o Marshall Plan  George Marshall  Counter-insurgency  US will extend funds to all nations in Europe, even communist, to help rebuild.  Particularly to West Germany  Berlin Blockade, June 1948-May 1949 o USSR wants the entire Berlin occupation zone o Cuts off land routes o USAF and British Royal Air Force supply the city by air for the entire year o 2.3 million tons of cargo o 30 USAF Airman killed o By 1949 the Soviets realize we can do this all day long, so they lift the blockade  Berlin: occupied area o Until 1990 Berlin was an occupied area o It stayed an occupied territory so Britain, US, and France would stay.  North Atlantic Treaty Organization o NATO is formed in September 1949 o Nations with Nuclear Weapons and those without o A new German Army in 1954  Only nation that’s fought the Soviets  Come into NATO but not allowed to hold a nuclear weapon o Warsaw Pact  If any communist nation is invaded by a non-communist nation, all communist nations will come to their aid.  Defense measures o Peacetime conscription o National Security Act, 1947  War to defense  USAF o NSC-68  Defend the Western Hemisphere  Hold on for offensive forces  Provide essential aid to allies April 12, 2013  The Korean War, 1950-1953 o 1949 China falls to communism o Occupational zones along the 38th parallel o US and USSR withdrawal in 1949 o North Korean aggression  June 1950 NK begins to invade

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