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UGA BIOL 1108 - Salt & Water Balance

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BIOL 1108 1st Edition Lecture 15 Outline of Last Lecture I. Learning ObjectivesII. CirculationIII. Gas Exchange Outline of Current Lecture I. Learning Objectives II. In The NewsIII. OsmoregulationIV. ExcretionV. Evolutionary Structural Variations Current LectureI. Learning Objectives 1. Be able to:- Relate osmoconformers and osmoregulators to their environments - Relate animals’ nitrogenous wastes to an animal’s environment and energy use- Compare/ contrast evolutionary structural variations for osmoregulation and excretionII. In The News: “Why does Nathan Siegal find Apeel Sciences appealing?”- A biological film allows fruit from rotting as fast- Prevent chemical signals of the food from getting to insects eating them- Keeping the moisture inside, slowing down rotting and bacterial growth- Increases shelf-life, decrease need of pesticides - Common pesticide application: are airborne that can reach into other areas otherthan just crops (contamination, pollution), affects bodily functions of certain organismsThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.- Pesticide Pros: increase yields, enhance industrialization- Pesticide Cons: create resisting organisms, hit non-target organisms, harming environment - Effects on Natural Systems: biomagnification- pesticides’ effects increase the higher the food chain; BET in birds= soft shells (dead offspring)- Organic farms even have detection of pesticides because of the spreado Alternatives: organic farming, rotating crops, eat local (less cost), biofilms like in Apeel Sciences - Effects on humans: reproduction, nervous, and even immune systemso Organophosphorus pesticides Inhibits acetlycholrinesesterase- Degrades acetylcholine in synapse Toxicity results- Autonomic dysfunction- Involuntary movements- Affects muscle fibers- Respiratory depressionIII. Osmoregulation- A process by which animals control their solute concentrations and balance theirwater gain and loss- Linked structurally and functionally with the excretory system- Water travels to more concentrated areas- Hyperosmotic: water moves into cell as the inside of the cell as more solutes. This causes the cell to burst or lyse. - Isoosmotic: the concentrations outside and inside the cell are the same, making the exchange of water equal. - Hypoosmotic: water moves out of cell as the outside of the cell has more solutes.This causes the cell to shrink and shrivel.- Osmoconformers- conform to their environmentso Consist in mostly marine invertebrateso There are similar concentrations of solute between the cell and water- Osmoregulators- are independent to the environmento Mostly terrestrial vertebrates  The problem land animals struggle with is to retain water Adaptations include type of waste being produce, type of skin, ect.o Must maintain cellular concentration from changing environment TOPHAT QUESTION: Freshwater fish are hyperosmotic to their environment and gain waterTOPHAT QUESTION: Most marine fish are hypposmotic to their environment and lose water- Marine fish are adapted to have gills that excrete solutes, whereas freshwater fish absorb more solutes through their gills.TOPHAT QUESTION: Compare to a freshwater fish, you would expect a marine fish to: Have more concentrated urineIV. Excretion - Riding the body of nitrogenous metabolites - Linked structurally and functionally with osmoregulation- Nitrogenous wasteso Ammonia Most toxic Most aquatic animals because water can easily break down solutes Requires more water to excreteo Urea Mammals, most amphibians, sharks, and some bony fisho Uric Acid Many reptiles (including birds), insects, and land snails Least toxic Most lay eggs, so the solutes aren’t as harmful to offspring Needs the most energy to produce (endotherms require moreenergy ex. Predators)V. Evolutionary Structural Variations a. Protonephridiai. Ex. Flatworms (long, thin body plan)ii. Use cilia to pull bodily fluids into the flame bulb and filters itiii. Useful products return back into the bodyb. Metanephridiai. Ex. Annelidsii. Diffusion occurs between capillaries and tubulesiii. Excreting unhelpful products through body openingc. Malpighian Tubulesi. Ex. Terrestrial arthropodsii. Surface area to volume ratio increases absorptioniii. Least toxic waste, need to conserve wateriv. Pulls in salts and wastes into the gutv. Has no filtering process but can re-absorb helpful productsvi. Helps conserve energy and waterd. Kidneysi. Ex. Vertebrates and other chordates ii. Blood flows into kidneysiii. Nephrons of the kidneys conserve


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