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UGA KINS 2010 - Use of Muscles; Exercise Physiology

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Use of musclesTypes of muscle contraction?Agonist- prime mover in a particular motionAntagonist- working against the agonist movementSynergist- the muscles assisting in the main motion but not the prime moverFlexor vs. Extensor: decreasing vs. increasing of angle at the joint of a muscleJoint Angles and Muscle ForceForce vs. TorqueTorque- rotational force around the joint: Force (N) x moment arm (m)Force-velocity RelationshipIsometric- no movementEccentric- speed of lengtheningConcentric- speed of shorteningWe can generate the most force when our muscles are contracting eccentricallyYou generate more force eccentrically going faster, and you generate more force concentrically going slowerChapter 11: Physical Activity Physiology (Exercise Physiology)Exercise physiology- the study of acute physiological responses to PA and the changes in physiological responses to chronic PAExercise physiologists apply principles of biology and chemistry to understand how the body responds to PAFoundation for conditioning, fitness, and rehab programsGoals:How to enhance physical performanceHow to improve physical function in particular environmentsHow PA and exercise improve health and fitnessHow exercise can be used to prevent/treat diseaseAdaptations in anatomy and physiologyThere is laboratory and fieldwork when researching in this field of studySkeletal MusclesTerminology:Muscular strength vs. enduranceIsometric vs. isotonic (same force over movement) vs. isokinetic (same speed over movement)Eccentric vs. concentric contractionImportant points:Not all muscles are the same- there are different muscle fiber typesAdaptations to resistance trainingKey training principles- how to maximize adaptations to resistance trainingMuscle fiber types:Slow oxidative- slow twitch (Type 1)Long distance eventsFast oxidative/glycolytic- fast twitch a (Type 2a)SoccerFast glycolytic- fast twitch x (Type 2x)Sprinters, power performanceSingle muscle fiber physiologyPeak power is different between muscle fiber typesAll fiber types tend to reach their peak ~2% of each fiber typeKINS 2010 1st Edition Lecture 20Outline of Last Lecture I. What are the 3 types of muscle contractions?II. What is biomechanics?a. Goal of biomechanicsIII. Mechanical PrinciplesIV. Newton’s Laws of MotionOutline of Current Lecture I. Use of musclesII. Joint Angles and Muscular Forcea. Force vs. Torque III. Force-velocity RelationshipIV. Exercise Physiologya. Definitionb. GoalsV. Skeletal Musclesa. Terminology b. Important Pointsc. Muscle fiber typesCurrent Lecture Use of muscles- Types of muscle contraction?o Agonist- prime mover in a particular motion These notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.o Antagonist- working against the agonist movement o Synergist- the muscles assisting in the main motion but not the prime movero Flexor vs. Extensor: decreasing vs. increasing of angle at the joint of a muscle Joint Angles and Muscle Force- Force vs. Torque o Torque- rotational force around the joint: Force (N) x moment arm (m) Force-velocity Relationship- Isometric- no movement- Eccentric- speed of lengthening- Concentric- speed of shortening o We can generate the most force when our muscles are contracting eccentrically o You generate more force eccentrically going faster, and you generate more force concentrically going slower Chapter 11: Physical Activity Physiology (Exercise Physiology) Exercise physiology- the study of acute physiological responses to PA and the changes in physiological responses to chronic PA- Exercise physiologists apply principles of biology and chemistry to understand how the body responds to PAo Foundation for conditioning, fitness, and rehab programs- Goals:o How to enhance physical performanceo How to improve physical function in particular environmentso How PA and exercise improve health and fitnesso How exercise can be used to prevent/treat diseaseo Adaptations in anatomy and physiology- There is laboratory and fieldwork when researching in this field of study  Skeletal Muscles- Terminology:o Muscular strength vs. enduranceo Isometric vs. isotonic (same force over movement) vs. isokinetic (same speed over movement)o Eccentric vs. concentric contraction- Important points:o Not all muscles are the same- there are different muscle fiber typeso Adaptations to resistance trainingo Key training principles- how to maximize adaptations to resistance training - Muscle fiber types:o Slow oxidative- slow twitch (Type 1) Long distance eventso Fast oxidative/glycolytic- fast twitch a (Type 2a) Soccero Fast glycolytic- fast twitch x (Type 2x) Sprinters, power performanceo Single muscle fiber physiology Peak power is different between muscle fiber types All fiber types tend to reach their peak ~2% of each fiber


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