Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide

Overview of lectures 1-15 that will be covered on the first exam.

Study Guide
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Hist 158 - EARLY MODERN EUROPE Lecture 3

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HIST 158 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 15 Lecture 1 (August 21) Significant splits  “Fall of Rome” in 476 o A clash of civilization o The decline of the Roman Empire was actually a slow process that had many contributing factors  External forces  Barbaric forces (called The Franks) brutally take over  Internal forces  Religious, economic and political turmoil o Roman Empire splits  Western Roman Empire: Rome  Eastern Roman Empire: Constantinople o German military leaders take over territories once the Roman Empire disintegrates  Power became personal as subjects swore allegiance to their leaders  Feudalism was fundamental  Roman Catholic Church (West) v. Orthodox Church (East) o Great Schism of 1054  Christianity and Islam o Muslims (Arabic groups) invasions led to the split  Overall, the church becomes a powerful political force o The Pope excommunicates the Emperor for naming bishops against his will and the Emperor is forced to formally apologize o People become extremely religious and superstitious Lecture 2 (August 26) Society, economy and technological/scientific advances  Society and Economy o Three divisions: noble, clergy, peasants  Fixed divisions that often caused tensions o Economy: long decline, revival starting in 11th century o Burghers- people living in the cities (often part of the middle class)  People heard of the opportunities in the cities and moved  Became a very attractive ideal: peasants were no longer bound to the land: “town air makes one free”  Cities grew and economy was stimulated o Famines and The Black Plague 1347  Wiped out a third of European society  Science, Technology and Exploration o People thought they were living in “special times” o Major technical innovations  The Printing Press 1435-1450  A collaborative invention: Glutenberg, Fust, Schoffer  China: block printing and paper  Flanders: ink  Germany: advanced metal and working skills  Global effects o Scholarship: accuracy, collaborative, accessibility o Dissemination of ideas on a global scale o New learned class in the cities… not only clergy had access to books and newspapers o Revolutionized the way people would read and write  The New Warfare 1450-1500  Trebuchet- machine to project/throw stones  Gunpowder- to build cannons  Conquest of Constantinople 1453 o Ottoman Turks could conquer city with German weaponry  “Proletarianization” of War o Before this time, only nobles were trained to fight… now peasants could operate weapons too o Initiated major social changes in regards to war  No longer a Gentleman/Noble Sport  Emerging national monarchies benefitted the most as they recruited men from the countryside to form armies Lecture 3 (August 28) New Science  The Scientific Revolution o Before this time the Medieval world was seen as finite and heterogeneous o Copernicus (1473-1543) a Polish scientist  End of geocentrism (the Earth isn’t at the center of the universe, the sun is)  Homogeneous universe (heavenly and earthly spheres didn’t have independent laws of physics)  ...

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