Exam 1 Study Guide(14 pages)
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Exam 1 Study Guide
Overview of lectures 1-15 that will be covered on the first exam.
- Study Guide
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- Hist 158 - EARLY MODERN EUROPE Lecture 3
Unformatted text preview:
HIST 158 1st Edition Exam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 15 Lecture 1 (August 21) Significant splits “Fall of Rome” in 476 o A clash of civilization o The decline of the Roman Empire was actually a slow process that had many contributing factors External forces Barbaric forces (called The Franks) brutally take over Internal forces Religious, economic and political turmoil o Roman Empire splits Western Roman Empire: Rome Eastern Roman Empire: Constantinople o German military leaders take over territories once the Roman Empire disintegrates Power became personal as subjects swore allegiance to their leaders Feudalism was fundamental Roman Catholic Church (West) v. Orthodox Church (East) o Great Schism of 1054 Christianity and Islam o Muslims (Arabic groups) invasions led to the split Overall, the church becomes a powerful political force o The Pope excommunicates the Emperor for naming bishops against his will and the Emperor is forced to formally apologize o People become extremely religious and superstitious Lecture 2 (August 26) Society, economy and technological/scientific advances Society and Economy o Three divisions: noble, clergy, peasants Fixed divisions that often caused tensions o Economy: long decline, revival starting in 11th century o Burghers- people living in the cities (often part of the middle class) People heard of the opportunities in the cities and moved Became a very attractive ideal: peasants were no longer bound to the land: “town air makes one free” Cities grew and economy was stimulated o Famines and The Black Plague 1347 Wiped out a third of European society Science, Technology and Exploration o People thought they were living in “special times” o Major technical innovations The Printing Press 1435-1450 A collaborative invention: Glutenberg, Fust, Schoffer China: block printing and paper Flanders: ink Germany: advanced metal and working skills Global effects o Scholarship: accuracy, collaborative, accessibility o Dissemination of ideas on a global scale o New learned class in the cities… not only clergy had access to books and newspapers o Revolutionized the way people would read and write The New Warfare 1450-1500 Trebuchet- machine to project/throw stones Gunpowder- to build cannons Conquest of Constantinople 1453 o Ottoman Turks could conquer city with German weaponry “Proletarianization” of War o Before this time, only nobles were trained to fight… now peasants could operate weapons too o Initiated major social changes in regards to war No longer a Gentleman/Noble Sport Emerging national monarchies benefitted the most as they recruited men from the countryside to form armies Lecture 3 (August 28) New Science The Scientific Revolution o Before this time the Medieval world was seen as finite and heterogeneous o Copernicus (1473-1543) a Polish scientist End of geocentrism (the Earth isn’t at the center of the universe, the sun is) Homogeneous universe (heavenly and earthly spheres didn’t have independent laws of physics) ...
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