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UA KIN 464 - Organizing

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KIN 464 Lecture 7 Outline of Current Lecture I. Importance of OrganizingII. The Benefits of OrganizingIII. Classical Theories of OrganizingIV. Dimensions of Organization StructureV. Classic Principles of Organizational StructureCurrent LectureI. Importance of Organizinga. Root Word: Organismi. Referring to parts separate in function which are interdependent 1. Ex: human body - one whole with different parts working togetherb. Definition of Organizingi. The process of delegating and coordinating tasks and resources to achieveobjectives.ii. A managerial effort to assign work and allocate resources; then, arrange the work and resources in such an orderly way that a group’s effort generates the desired end result in the most efficient manner possible1. Different departments working together2. Ex: Alabama football team – coaching staff (head coach, special teams, defense offence, etc.) players, fans, etc.c. Definition of Formal Organization i. A group of people working together toward common objectives with clearlines of authority, responsibility, accountability and communication (a hierarchy)1. Ex: Alabama athletics departmentII. The Benefits of Organizinga. Generates effective group actioni. Group reaches its goalsii. Fully utilizes individuals knowledge and skill sets b. Synergizes resourcesi. Leads to the proper use of resources => SYNERGY (the whole is greater than the sum of its parts) or (a lot of different elements and blending them together)c. Pinpoints individual responsibilitiesThese notes represent a detailed interpretation of the professor’s lecture. GradeBuddy is best used as a supplement to your own notes, not as a substitute.i. Specifies duties and responsibilities1. Ex: assistant/position coaches ii. Lines of authority and accountabilityd. Facilitates the functions of implementing and controle. People perform best when:i. The skills and knowledge are a good fit for their jobii. The working conditions and environment are pleasantiii. People have a clear understanding of their duties and responsibilities III. Classical Theories of Organizinga. Importance is placed on ORGANIZATION STRUCTURE and HIERARCHY. What is Organizational Structure?i. An organizational structure is the framework that outlines how tasks are divided, grouped and coordinated within an organization. ii. An organizational structure provides a roadmap for how positions within an organization are related and what tasks are performed by individuals and work teams within an organization.iii. Finding the right structure for an organization involves balancing requirements to formalize procedures whilst fostering innovation and creativity.iv. It provides clear reporting and communication lines while trying to reduce unnecessary and costly layers of managementIV. Dimensions of Organization Structurea. When designing an organization’s structure, managers need to consider the following questions:i. Whom should individuals/departments report to?1. Chain of Command/Span of controlii. How many individuals should report to each manager?1. Span of Control iii. How should we subdivide the work?1. Division of Laboriv. At what level should decisions be made?1. Centralization / Decentralization V. Classic Principles of Organizational Structurea. Departmentalizationi. The bringing together of individuals into groups so that common or related tasks can be coordinated.ii. People are assigned to departments in order to meet organizational goalsiii. Organizations can departmentalize on the basis of:1. Functions (e.g. marketing, compliance)2. Products or Services (e.g. football apparel, basketball apparel)3. Processes (e.g. what do we produce or service?)4. Geography (e.g. inner / outer rims)5. Customer Type (e.g. individual athletes or teams)*a manager must put people in the correct departments according to their individual skills. (no square pegs in round holes)b. Work Specialization (Division of Labor)i. Creating roles for individuals that enable them to specialize in performing a limited number of tasks. Jobs are organized by specialty (e.g. marketing,event management).ii. The advantage of breaking jobs down to a set routine of repetitive tasks isan increase in employee productivity and reduced costs through the use of lower-skilled labor force.iii. This must be balanced against the risks of making work too boring or stressful for individuals, which can lead to accidents, poor quality, lower productivity, absenteeism, and high job turnover.iv. Lots of layers of people and positions to the top. – Bureaucracy c. Chain of Command (Scalar principle)i. Authority in the formal organization flows one link at a time from the highest level to the lowest level1. The reporting trails that exists between upper and lower levels of an organization.2. It is the line of authority that connects each position within an organization.3. It encompasses the notions of establishing clear authority and responsibility for each position in the organization - a clear line of authority from the top to the bottom.4. Everyone in the organization needs to know who they report to (hierarchy).5. Identifies the formal path for communications / reporting. d. Unity of Commandi. No employee should report to more than one immediate superior (boss)1. Having a single person to whom an employee is responsible is known as Unity of Command.2. Having a single boss avoids employees having to deal with potential conflict when juggling the demands of two or more managers and it helps achieve clear decision-making.3. Having more than one boss can be confusing and frustrating whenthey want something different done.4. If the whole organization is not on the same page or has different goals and interests you will run into conflict and will not be successful. e. Unity of Directioni. Means that all activities are directed toward the same objectives – e.g. finishing the project, hosting the event, winning the game.ii. When a team doesn’t pull together, it often fails to finish the project or loses the game.f. Coordinationi. Coordination is about people working together across departments.ii. Coordination is the process of integrating tasks and resources to meet objectives.g. Span of Controli. Refers to the number of staff that any manger can directly supervise without becoming inefficient or ineffective. 1. *** There is a limit to the number of employees a manager can effectively superviseii. How many employees report directly to a manager?iii. The exact


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