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Extreme population subdivision throughout a continuous range



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Molecular Ecology 2007 16 4335 4355 doi 10 1111 j 1365 294X 2007 03527 x Extreme population subdivision throughout a continuous range phylogeography of Batrachoseps attenuatus Caudata Plethodontidae in western North America Blackwell Publishing Ltd I I G O M A RT N E Z S O L A N O E L I Z A B E T H L J O C K U S C H and D AV I D B WA K E Museum of Vertebrate Zoology University of California Berkeley 3101 VLSB Berkeley California 94720 USA Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of Connecticut Storrs 75 N Eagleville Road Unit 3043 Storrs Connecticut 06269 USA Abstract Low vagility species with deep evolutionary histories are key to our understanding of the biogeographical history of geologically complex areas such as the west coast of North America We present a detailed study of the phylogeography of the salamander Batrachoseps attenuatus Caudata Plethodontidae using sequences of the mitochondrial gene cob from 178 individuals sampled from throughout the species range Sequences of three other mitochondrial genes 16S cox1 nad4 and a nuclear gene RAG 1 were used to investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the species We found high levels of genetic diversity and deep divergences within a mostly continuous distribution with five genetically welldifferentiated and geographically structured mitochondrial DNA clades Significant association between geographical and genetic distances within these clades suggests demographic stability whereas Fu s FS tests suggest demographic expansions in three of them Mantel tests identify two biogeographical barriers the San Andreas Fault and the Sacramento San Joaquin Delta as important in the diversification of lineages The timing of the main splitting events between intraspecific lineages was estimated by applying relaxed molecular clock methods combining several mutation rates and a fossil calibration The earliest splitting events are old Pliocene Miocene with more recent Pleistocene subdivisions in some clades Disjunct



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