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Build a Large-Scale Quantum Computer Using Semiconductor Materials



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Can We Build a Large Scale Quantum Computer Using Semiconductor Materials B E Kane Abstract The following article is based on the Symposium X presentation given by Bruce E Kane University of Maryland at the 2004 Materials Research Society Spring Meeting in San Francisco Quantum computing has the potential to revolutionize our ability to solve certain classes of difficult problems A quantum computer is able to manipulate individual two level quantum states qubits in the same way that a conventional computer processes binary ones and zeroes Here Kane discusses some of the most promising proposals for quantum computing in which the qubit is associated with single electron spins in semiconductors While current research is focused on devices at the one and two qubit level there is hope that cross fertilization with advancing conventional computer technology will enable the eventual development of a large scale thousands of qubits semiconductor quantum computer The author focuses on materials issues that will need to be surmounted if large scale quantum computing is to be realizable He argues in particular that inherent fluctuations in doped semiconductors will severely limit scaling and that scalable quantum computing in semiconductors may only be possible at the end of the road of Moore s law scaling when devices are engineered and fabricated at the atomic level Keywords quantum computing semiconductors spintronics Introduction One of the most exciting questions facing the physics and materials science communities today is whether it will be possible to construct a large scale quantum computer 1 Such computers are currently theoretical machines which manipulate and process single quantum states in the same way that conventional computers process ones and zeroes The field of quantum computing has flourished since the realization by Peter Shor in 1994 that quantum computers if they could be built could solve certain cryptographic problems that are completely in MRS



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