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UNT PACS 4050 - Exam 1 Study Guide

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PACS 4050 1st EditionExam # 1 Study Guide Lectures: 1 - 3Lecture 1 (Chapter 1 September 3)Recognizing You Are on the RoadKey Terms:Zero-sum game: a game where one person must win and one must lose where there is no room for compromise.Fixed pie assumption: this assumption is that the size of the resource to be divided (or negotiation pie) is fixed.Negotiation: a process that helps two or more people work together to achieve goals and solve problems.Traits of effective/successful negotiators: genuine, flexible, ethical, an active listener, and curious.Many people hate to negotiate because of a past experience when they did not properly prepare for a negotiation. Some people fail to anticipate that a situation will require negotiationskills until it is too late to change course. Some people see negotiation as a zero-sum game, meaning that the only way they “win” in a negotiation is if the other side “loses.” Under this fixed pie assumption, the negotiator assumes that what she wants is in direct conflict with what the other negotiator wants. The pie is only so big, she reasons, so she believes she can get a large share of the pie only by taking more pie away from the other person.We define negotiation to mean a process that helps two or more people work together to achieve goals and solve problems. It involves individual and joint outcomes. A negotiation is not an argument or debate, but some can feel like it. Effective negotiators understand that negotiation is a problem solving activity that requires the active participation of both negotiators in order for a deal to be reached. But, without proper planning, your chances of being successful in negotiation are diminished. Similar planning is important for effective negotiations. Planning for a negotiation means thinking not only about what you want but also about the negotiation style that best fits the specific negotiation situation. A good negotiator understands that the strategy and approach must be changed depending on the situation.Rackham observed 48 negotiators who were identified as being “effective” negotiators in 102 labor-management negotiation sessions. He found that skilled negotiators:- Spend over three times as much time as average negotiators anticipating common groundissues during the planning stages of a negotiation- Establish settlement ranges rather than a fixed settlement point- Avoid the use of irritators-words or phrases that are intended to persuade but that serve only to irritate the other negotiator – in face-to-face negotiations- Tend to make fewer counterproposals during the early stages of face-to-face negotiations- Avoid defend/attack behaviors during negotiations- Are concerned about avoiding misunderstandings at the negotiations table- Ask nearly twice as many questions during negotiations compared with average negotiators- Share internal information-feelings, perceptions, emotions, and so on about what is going on in her or his mind with the other negotiator.Less skilled or average negotiators use irritators to persuade the other person to see things theirway. But skilled negotiators understand what they want to accomplish in a negotiation. Skilled negotiators think about what they can offer the other negotiator to reach an agreement. Skilled negotiators ask questions aimed at identifying what is important to the other negotiator, work to exchange information with the other person, and avoid making personal attacks.Rackham’s study emphasizes that effective negotiators tend to use more “cooperative” type skills in negotiation that confrontational or competitive tactics. Cooperative people can therefore, be effective negotiators.A good negotiator is genuine, flexible, ethical, an active listener, and curious.- Genuine: You have to be yourself at the negotiation table. Inexperienced negotiations frequently try to imitate the style of negotiators who they know to be successful. Copying someone else’s approach will not lead to success. An effective negotiator has to be genuine.- Flexible: Even the best planned negotiation strategy may have to change.- Ethical: It is important that you be able to trust what the other negotiator tells you. You can trust a good negotiator to keep her or his word during a negotiation. Do not lie during a negotiation and negotiate with understanding for the different options that are fair to you and to the other negotiator.- Active Listener: This means listening to understand what the other person has to say. A good negotiator listens to understand and asks questions to check on that understanding.- Curious: One of the difficult things in negotiation is to identify what you want and what the other person may want. “Why” you want something is called an interest. Better deals are those that satisfy as many of the negotiators (yours and theirs) Interests as possible. Being curious helps a negotiator ask questions that will help put the many pieces of a negotiation into place.Lecture 2 (Chapter 2 September 10) Conflict handling styles: The different approaches that individuals take to resolve conflicts or to handle negotiations. Most people have a preferred style, but a good negotiator can adapt their style to the situation.Win-lose: An outcome of a negotiation where one person gets what they want and the other person receives nothing (or very little).Dual-concern model: A two-dimensional model that plots conflict handling styles as a function of level of concern for own outcomes and interests (Assertiveness) and as a function of the concern for the other’s outcomes and interests (Cooperativeness).Avoiding: A conflict handling style where the individual is uncomfortable with conflict and avoids confrontation altogether. This style only makes sense if the issue is unimportant to both negotiators. Avoiding the conflict rarely makes it go away.Competing: A conflict handling style where the negotiator looks out for his or her own interests and cares little about the relationship with the other person. Competitors like to “win” and they do well in one-time negotiations, but less so when there are multiple issues and the relationshipwith the other is important.Accommodation: A conflict handling style where the individual gives in to the other. This is not an effective style in a one-time negotiation; however, if there is an ongoing relationship between the negotiators, one can (and should) accommodate the other if the


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