UA HIST 277A - Exam 1 Study Guide (7 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


A review of everything from lecture 1 to 11.

Study Guide
University of Arizona
Hist 277a - History of the Middle East
History of the Middle East Documents

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HIST 277A 1st Edition Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures 1 11 Lecture 0 August 25 Class introduction Lecture 1 August 27 In the 5th 6th Century before the birth of Islam the Arabian Gulf was an important region for trade Mecca at the time was the center of trade in the region Empires surrounding Mecca fought each other over territories in order to secure the trade route They achieved it by creating proxy states There were three proxy states Ghassanids controlled by the Christian Roman Byzantine Lakhmids controlled by the Zoroastrian Sasanian Empire and Kinda controlled by the Christian Ethiopians The prophet Muhammad was born in Mecca At the age of 25 he worked as a tradesman under the employment of Khadijah Khadijah found Muhammad to be a man of good character and proposed marriage to him In 610 Muhammad went to a cave to meditate and experienced a vision Three years later he pronounced himself a prophet publicly Khadijah was the first person to be Muslim while Ali Muhammad s cousin was the second Muslim The declaration of Muhammad as a prophet caused many oppositions especially among the elites in Mecca They were afraid that Muhammad was plotting to revolt against the elite and corrupting the minds of the Meccans Moreover they also disliked Muhammad s teachings of justice and equality Eventually Muhammad migrated to a city 210 miles north of Mecca called Medina to avoid assassination plotted by the Meccans in 622 Muhammad stayed there for 10 years until in 632 Muhammad won over Mecca and Mecca accepted Islam Unfortunately Muhammad passed away on that same year without appointing any successor There was a debate going on over the succession of Muslim leader after Muhammad s death The first side of the story claimed Abu Bakr as the rightful leader Abu Bakr was Muhammad s father in law who eventually became the third person to convert to Islam Aisha was Muhammad s wife and Abu Bakr s daughter who was a prominent figure in the Muslim society After Muhammad s death it was

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