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American Journal of Botany 98 2 306 325 2011 PHYLOGENY OF THE CLUSIOID CLADE MALPIGHIALES EVIDENCE FROM THE PLASTID AND MITOCHONDRIAL GENOMES1 Brad R Ruhfel2 8 Volker Bittrich3 Claudia P Bove4 Mats H G Gustafsson5 C Thomas Philbrick6 Rolf Rutishauser7 Zhenxiang Xi2 and Charles C Davis2 8 2Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Harvard University Herbaria 22 Divinity Avenue Cambridge Massachusetts 02138 USA 3Rua Dr M rio de Nucci 500 Cidade Universit ria 13083 290 Campinas Brazil 4Departamento de Bot nica Museu Nacional Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Quinta da Boa Vista Rio de Janeiro 20940 040 Brazil 5Ecoinformatics and Biodiversity Department of Biological Sciences Aarhus University Ole Worms All Building 1137 8000 rhus C Denmark 6Western Connecticut State University Biological Environmental Sciences 181 White Street Danbury Connecticut 06810 USA and 7University of Zurich Institute of Systematic Botany Zollikerstrasse 107 CH 8008 Zurich Switzerland Premise of the study The clusioid clade includes five families i e Bonnetiaceae Calophyllaceae Clusiaceae s s Hypericaceae and Podostemaceae represented by 94 genera and 1900 species Species in this clade form a conspicuous element of tropical forests worldwide and are important in horticulture timber production and pharmacology We conducted a taxon rich multigene phylogenetic analysis of the clusioids to clarify phylogenetic relationships in this clade Methods We analyzed plastid matK ndhF and rbcL and mitochondrial matR nucleotide sequence data using parsimony maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference Our combined data set included 194 species representing all major clusioid subclades plus numerous species spanning the taxonomic morphological and biogeographic breadth of the clusioid clade Key results Our results indicate that Tovomita Clusiaceae s s Harungana and Hypericum Hypericaceae and Ledermanniella s s and Zeylanidium Podostemaceae are not monophyletic In addition we place four genera that

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