Brandeis LING 100A - Introduction to Linguistics (7 pages)

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Introduction to Linguistics



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Introduction to Linguistics

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7
School:
Brandeis University
Course:
Ling 100a - Introduction to Linguistics

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Introduction to Linguistics Syntax 2 cont d Universal syntax 1 Transformations Deletion a syntactic rule whereby a piece of syntactic structure is built up by the phrase structure rules is removed under specified conditions VP ellipsis 1 I teach linguistics and he does too Gapping 2 I teach linguistics and he physics Constraints on deletion parallelism of the two clauses identity of deleted stuff and antecedent subordinate vs coordinate clauses VP ellipsis vs Gapping linear order of deleted stuff and antecedent Movement a syntactic rule for moving a piece of structure within the tree giving rise to displacement situations where a word or constituent appears in some position other than where we would expect it Topicalization 3 Him I don t like normally him direct object shows up after the verb Tense lowering actually all sentences without overt Aux must involve movement from Santorini Beatrice and Anthony Kroch 2006 The syntax of natural language An online introduction using the Trees program http www ling upenn edu beatrice syntax textbook Chapter 6 Certain adverbs in English obligatorily precede nonfinite i e untensed verbs 4 a They will always never apply b They have always never applied applied here is untensed it s a participle c They are always never applying d They will apply always never e They have applied always never f They are applying always never These adverbs precede the main verb of a sentence even when the verb is finite i e tensed 5 a They always never applied b They applied always never What happens to tense information it gets together with the main verb What moves the verb or the tense The ungrammaticality of 5b means that the verb raising analysis cannot be correct So the tense simply moves to join up with the verb leaving the adverb in front Combining deletion and movement Short passive 6 The thief stole the letter The letter was stolen w r t meaning the letter is still being acted upon the thief is implicit Chomsky s theory DEEP STRUCTURE



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