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MENISPERMACEAE fang ji ke Luo Xianrui Lo Hsien shui 1 Chen Tao 2 Michael G Gilbert3 Climbing or twining vines rarely erect shrubs or small trees indumentum of simple hairs often absent Stems striate without spines wood often with radial pith rays Leaves alternate spiral stipules absent petiole swollen at base and apex leaf blade simple sometimes palmately lobed rarely trifoliolate venation often palmate less often pinnate Inflorescences axillary sometimes from old wood rarely superaxillary or terminal often umbelliform cymes rarely reduced to single flower or flowers in a head on a discoid receptacle arranged in thyrses compound umbels or racemelike bracts usually small rarely leafy female Cocculus Flowers unisexual plants dioecious usually small inconspicuous mostly pedicellate Sepals often in whorls of 2 or 3 or 4 rarely reduced to 1 female Stephania sometimes spirally arranged Hypserpa Menispermum free or less often connate imbricate or valvate Petals usually 3 or 6 in 1 or 2 whorls rarely 2 or 4 sometimes reduced to 1 or absent usually free rarely connate imbricate or valvate Stamens 2 6 8 to many filaments free or connate sometimes stamens completely fused into synandrium anthers 1 or 2locular or apparently 4 locular dehiscing longitudinally or transversely Staminodes sometimes present in female flowers Carpels 1 6 to many free often swollen on one side style initially terminal stigma lobed or divided rarely entire Ovules 2 reducing to 1 by abortion Pistillodes very small or absent in male flower Fruit a drupe straight or often horseshoe shaped exocarp membranous or leathery mesocarp usually fleshy endocarp bony or sometimes woody rarely leathery surface usually variously ornamented rarely smooth sides usually with central smooth and sunken condyle rarely inconspicuous or lacking e g Tinomiscium Seed usually curved seed coat thin endosperm present or absent embryo mostly curved straight in Tinomiscium radicle small opposite to style scar cotyledons flat and

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