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Ethology CURRENT I SSUES PERSPECTIVES AND RE VIEWS The Multipredator Hypothesis and the Evolutionary Persistence of Antipredator Behavior Daniel T Blumstein Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California Los Angeles CA USA Correspondence Daniel T Blumstein Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology University of California 621 Young Drive South Los Angeles CA 90095 1606 USA E mail marmots ucla edu Received September 30 2005 Initial acceptance November 1 2005 Final acceptance November 11 2005 S Forbes doi 10 1111 j 1439 0310 2006 01209 x Invited Review Abstract Isolation from predators affects prey behavior morphology and life history but there is tremendous variation in the time course of these responses Previous hypotheses to explain this variation have limited predictive ability I develop a multipredator hypothesis to explain the evolutionary persistence of antipredator behavior after the loss of some but not all of a species predators The hypothesis assumes pleiotropy whereby elements of antipredator behavior may function in non predatory situations and linkage such that genes influencing the expression of antipredator behavior do not assort independently The hypothesis is restricted to species with multiple predators most species and aims to predict the conditions under which antipredator behavior will persist following the loss of one or more of a species predators I acknowledge that the relative costs of non functional antipredator behavior will influence the likelihood of linkage and therefore persistence The hypothesis makes two main predictions First genes responsible for antipredator behavior will not be scattered throughout the genome but rather may be found close together on the same chromosome s Secondly the presence of any predators may be sufficient to maintain antipredator behavior for missing predators Advances in behavioral genetics will allow tests of the first prediction while studies of geographic variation in



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