MIT 2 165 - Biological motor control (26 pages)

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Biological motor control



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Biological motor control

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Pages:
26
School:
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Course:
2 165 - Robotics
Robotics Documents

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Biological motor control Andrew Richardson McGovern Institute for Brain Research March 14 2006 Why bother with biology Both plant musculoskeletal system and controller nervous system optimized by evolution for versatility and efficiency Motor neuroscience levels and themes Mechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system Motor behavior Motor neurophysiology Simplification of control by neural modulation of the mechanics Model based adaptive control in changing environments Coordinate frames and methods for movement planning Neural representations in motor cortex Cortically controlled neural prosthetics Mechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system Force production by a muscle is dependent on its length and velocity tension tension lengthening muscle length shortening velocity Mechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system Changes in muscle activation cause changes in the viscoelastic properties of the muscle tension muscle length Mechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system The nervous system receives information on muscle length velocity and force golgi tendon organ muscle spindle Mechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system Reflexes are local feedback loops that can modify the viscoelastic behavior of the motor periphery Nichols and Houk 1976 Reflex gains can be modulated by higher levels of the neural controller e g cerebellum motor cortex Mechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system Thus total neuromuscular viscoelasticity has both intrinsic i e muscle and reflexive contributions The gain of each of these contributions can be modulated by central commands At least for some behaviors the neural controller likely takes advantage of these mechanical properties 1 Equilibrium point servo control 2 Impedance control Mechanics of the neuromusculoskeletal system Equilibrium point control Equilibrium points dependent on neuromuscular elasticity loads Changing the stiffness ratio for antagonistic muscles shifts the equilibrium point producing a virtual trajectory Precludes need



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