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Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders: Drugs



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Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders Drugs Daughters S B 1 Bornovalova M A 1 Correia C 2 Lejuez C W 1 University of Maryland 1 Auburn University 2 In M Hersen S M Turner D Beidel Adult psychopathology and diagnosis Fifth edition Hoboken NJ Wiley The incidence and prevalence of substance use disorders SUDs continues to present major costs to individuals families and society at large It has been estimated that 484 billion is spent each year on substance abuse related costs including treatment and prevention health care expenditures lost wages reduced job production accidents and crime NIDA 2004 with over 60 of these costs linked to drug related incidents Specifically over 60 billion is spent on the purchase of drugs annually with 10 billion on heroin 35 2 billion on cocaine 10 5 billion on marijuana 15 billion on prescription drugs and 5 billion on other illegal drugs SAMHSA 2002 Moreover in 2001 there were an estimated 638 484 drug related emergency room episodes and drug related deaths reached 19 698 in 2000 up from 16 926 just two years before SAMHSA 2002 Aside from the troubling public cost statistics SUDs are associated with engagement in multiple health compromising behaviors e g condom non use multiple partners impulsive spending and subsequent physical social and emotional consequences Wallace 2001 It has become increasingly clear that understanding the development and maintenance of SUDs is a complex problem Towards this goal this chapter aims to provide an overview of current practices and cutting edge advancements in the diagnosis epidemiology etiology and assessment of SUDs As a first step we provide an overview of the clinical picture of SUD including a review of several diagnostic approaches epidemiology comorbidity course and prognosis and issues of diversity Next we review the etiology of SUD focusing primarily on biological genetic behavioral and cognitive theories We then present an up to date review of the assessment options of SUD including self



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