UW-Madison PHYSICS 208 - Chapter 22- Wave Optics (28 pages)

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Chapter 22- Wave Optics



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Chapter 22- Wave Optics

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Pages:
28
School:
University of Wisconsin, Madison
Course:
Physics 208 - General Physics
General Physics Documents

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Chapter 22 Wave Optics Light is an electromagnetic wave The interference of light waves produces the colors reflected from a CD the iridescence of bird feathers and the technology underlying supermarket checkout scanners and optical computers Chapter Goal To understand and apply the wave model of light 1 27 09 1 Models of Light The wave model under many circumstances light exhibits the same behavior as sound or water waves The study of light as a wave is called wave optics The ray model The properties of prisms mirrors and lenses are best understood in terms of light rays The ray model is the basis of ray optics The photon model In the quantum world light behaves like neither a wave nor a particle Instead light consists of photons that have both wave like and particle like properties This is the quantum theory of light 1 27 09 2 Wave propagation Diffraction A wave passing through an aperture spreads out The effect is pronounced if the aperture size is comparable to a wavelength http www ngsir netfirms com englishhtm Diffraction htm 1 27 09 Ray model works for wavelength aperture size 3 Diffraction of light Light diffraction is observed for slits smaller than a micron or so The wavelength of light about 0 5 micron 0 5e 6 m depending on the color can be inferred from the pattern A laser is a source of harmonic monochromatic light waves 1 27 09 4 Aperture sources of waves An aperture with width small compared to the wavelength behaves as a source of circular waves driven in phase by the incident wave Multiple apertures are coherent sources 1 27 09 5 Two slit interference of waves Two coherent wave sources produce an interference pattern Two slits driven by the same incident wave result in an interference pattern 1 27 09 6 Huygen s Principle Wave propagation can be modeled by treating each element of an advancing wave front as a source of spherical waves and an aperture as a collection of elements In this way the diffraction pattern of any aperture shape may be computed



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