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Psychonomic Bulletin Review 2007 14 2 207 211 Learning how to learn Can experiencing the outcome of different encoding strategies enhance subsequent encoding Elizabeth Ligon Bjork University of California Los Angeles California Patricia Ann deWinstanley Oberlin College Oberlin Ohio and Benjamin C Storm University of California Los Angeles California Research on how individuals monitor their level of comprehension during study paint a picture of learners as insensitive to many of the factors or conditions of learning that can enhance long term retention and transfer In the present article we discuss research examining the sensitivity or lack thereof of learners to one such factor generation More specifically we discuss research addressing the question of learners sensitivity to the memorial benefits of generation and whether if given the opportunity to experience this benefit in their own recall performance they might then go on to develop enhanced encoding strategies in the processing of new to be learned information How individuals monitor their level of comprehension during study is a question of growing interest to researchers of metacognitive processes see e g Benjamin Bjork Schwartz 1997 Bjork 1999 Dunlosky Nelson 1994 Koriat 1997 1998 Indeed some argue e g Bjork 1999 Jacoby Bjork Kelley 1994 that the readings learners take on their level of comprehension while studying can be as important as their actual comprehension because in part such readings influence their decisions on how to allocate learning resources On the basis of such readings for example students may decide to review one chapter rather than another or to spend more time studying one set of materials versus another in preparation for an examination Learners however can be far from accurate in taking such readings and can be subject to illusions of comprehension see e g Bjork 1999 Jacoby et al 1994 They can for example be led to think that their level of comprehension or skill is greater than it



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