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5 19 2011 Cenozoic Life History Marine Invertebrates and Phytoplankton Terminal Mesozoic extinction took out Ammonites Rudists most planktic forams much of the phytoplankton Survivors flourished and diversified Foraminifera large and small Diatoms great deposits of diatomite in Miocene Corals form reefs in warm waters Bryozoans smaller and more ornate thrive Bivalves and Gastropods rule and become increasingly modern and familiar Echinoids become more infaunal Sand dollars Cenozoic is quite provincial due to changing ocean currents and latitudinal temperature gradient 1 5 19 2011 Cenozoic Vegetation and Climate Angiosperms came to rule but gymnosperms and seedless vascular plants still numerous Leaves with entire smooth edges and drip points indicate high rainfall warm conditions Paleocene of Colorado Oligocene Florissant Beds of Colorado Leaves with incised margins indicate cool dry climates Wolfe 2 5 19 2011 Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum Abrupt warming trend 55 mya Ocean circulation disrupted deep warm water release of methane greenhouse effect Subtropical plant fossils in western North America indicate warmest period of Cenozoic in Paleocene and Eocene Pan tropical conditions Plants and Climate Oligocene drop in temperature General decrease in precipitation in midcontinent of North America Grasslands with scattered trees Savannah Grasslands Steppe Seen in the teeth of mammals 3 5 19 2011 Cenozoic Birds Paleogene may be called the Age of Birds 1st members of many modern groups evolved Large predatory birds took over that niche before mammals Miocene saw songbird explosion Pleistocene large flightless birds e g Moas elephant birds Flying birds rule the sky The Age of Mammals 140 my were small and not very diverse Mesozoic Exploited the niches left by the dinosaurs and other reptiles land sea and air Continued diversification at surprising speed throughout the Cenozoic 4 5 19 2011 The Age of Mammals Types of Mammals Monotremes egg laying Mammals Marsupials Carry



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