UW OCEAN 421 - Lecture Notes (29 pages)

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Lecture Notes



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Lecture Notes

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Pages:
29
School:
University of Washington
Course:
Ocean 421 - Special Topics in Physical Oceanography
Special Topics in Physical Oceanography Documents

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Chapter 10 Biolimiting Elements vertical and horizontal segregation case studies Fe and N 10 29 01 James W Murray Univ Washington By definition biolimiting elements are those necessary to sustain life and exist in low concentrations For the most part the prototypical macro biolimiting elements are P as PO4 Soft Parts N as NO3 Si as H4SiO4 Hard Parts Several trace elements can be limiting most notably iron I Vertical distributions Box models can be used to determine the rates of transfer between reservoirs and transformations within a reservoir Fig 10 1 Schematic of 2 box model Advantages Easy to conceptualize Provide an overview of fluxes reservoir sizes and turnover or residence times Provide the basis for more detailed models Disadvantages the analysis is superficial little insight is gained into processes e g transport we usually assume homogeneous distributions within reservoirs 1 Broecker 1971 Two Box Model Fig 10 2 Vriver x 0 Vriver Criver Surface Box Vmix Cdeep Vup V down Vmix Annual water transport 300 cm y 1 Vmix B 1 f x B Deep Box Vmix Vriver 30 fxB B Vriver Criver Vmix Cdeep Vmix Csurf f B Vriver Criver 1 f B Vmix Cdeep Vmix Csurf Assumptions 2 boxes each well mixed rivers the only source sediments the only sink removal is by biogenic particles steady state 2 Mass Balance Surface Box Inputs Outputs Vriver Criver Vmix Cdeep Vmix Csurf B Mass Balance Deep Box Vmix Csurf 1 f B Vmix Cdeep Mass Balance Whole Ocean Vriver Criver f B Two important properties 1 g efficiency of bioremoval from the surface as particles bioremoval inputs B VrCr Vmix Cdeep Element N P Si C Ca g 0 95 1 00 0 20 0 01 2 f fraction of particles that don t dissolve This is the efficiency of ultimate removal f B Vriver Criver f Vriver Criver B Vriver Criver Vriver Criver Vmix Cdeep Vmix Csurf 1 1 Vmix Vriver Cdeep Criver Csurf Criver Element N P Si C Ca f 0 01 0 02 0 12 3 The fraction of an element removed to the sediments for each visit to the surface box is given by the product of f x g



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