UMass Amherst GEO-SCI 103 - Exam 1 Study Guide (11 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


Study Guide for Exam 1, focusing on concepts from the first two chapters.

Study Guide
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Geo-Sci 103 - Intro Oceanography GenEd: PS

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GEO SCI 103 Exam 1 Study Guide Lectures 2 5 Lecture 2 September 4th Locating Ourselves Navigation Latitude and Longitude Where Are We If you know you latitude and longitude precisely you will be able to pinpoint exact locations on the Earth s surface with the unique set of coordinates on the grid system Latitude the angular distance of a place north or south of the Earth s equator They are made up of parallels which are the east and west gridlines parallel to the equator that make up the Northern and Southern Hemispheres Longitude The geographic coordinate that specifies the eat west position of a point on Earth s surface Meridians are the north south grid lines that intersect at the poles the Prime Meridian especially representing 0 degrees through Greenwich England How do we use the sextant and chronometer First we must note that the Earth spins 15 degrees per 1 hour Sextant It is a device that measures the angle between two objects To find latitude you must measure the angle between the horizon and the sun when the sun is at its highest point However we must use the chronometer to determine longitude Chronometer an instrument for measuring time especially designed to keep accurate time in spite of motion variations of temperature humidity and air pressure They were first developed for marine navigation their prime use being astronomical observation to determine longitude Example Say the sun is set directly overhead and your chronometer says the time is 3 00 PM This means that 3 hours ago the sun was overhead at this latitude at 0 degrees longitude THEREFORE the sun moved 15 degrees 3 times or a total of 45 degrees Therefore we would be 45 degrees West Navigational History Who are Eratosthenes and Pytheas Eratosthenes first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth by applying a measuring system that accurately calculated the tilt of the Earth s axis 23 5 degrees axis of rotation June 21 st Noticed that at high noon on June 21 the sun was directly

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