GSU CHEM 4600 - Exam 1 Study Guide (13 pages)

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Exam 1 Study Guide

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Exam 1 Study Guide


Study Guide
Georgia State University
Chem 4600 - Biochemistry I
Biochemistry I Documents

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CHEM 4600 1st Edition Exam 1 Study Guide Review Memorize Amino Acids 1 Structure 2 1 Letter Symbol 3 3 Letter Symbol 1 Organic a Review basic structures of molecules i Phenyl Carboxyl Ester Ether Alcohol Ketone Aldehyde ii Amine Schiff Base iii Thioester Unstable iv Phosphate Phosphodiester 2 Biology a DNA RNA Protein 3 Chemistry a Atoms i Most if not all properties of atoms are defined by valence electrons ii Octet Rule 1 Atoms try to have full outer shells a Some atoms give up electrons while others receive electrons to get a full outer shell b Electronegativity EN Tendency of an atom to gain bonding pairs to fill empty their outer shell Based on atoms pull of electrons toward their nucleus a EN can determine the type of bond between atoms 1 Molecule 1 Molecule 2 EN b Molecules i Bonds 1 Covalent Bonds a Equal sharing of electrons b 350 kJ mol c Electronegativity 4 d Ex Carbon Carbon a EN of carbon 2 5 b 2 5 2 5 0 2 Polar Covalent Bond a Unequal sharing of electrons b 5 EN 1 2 c Ex Oxygen Hydrogen a EN of oxygen 3 5 b EN of Hydrogen 2 3 c 3 5 2 3 1 2 3 Ionic Bond a Stealing of electrons of one atom by another b EN 1 21 c Ex Sodium Chlorine a EN of Chlorine 3 0 b EN of Sodium 9 c 3 0 9 2 1 c Molecules Interacting with Other Molecules i Non covalent bonds Intermolecular Forces IMF 1 Van der Waals a Induced Dipole Induced Dipole a An uncharged molecule is induced with a charge causing a charge on the neighboring molecule b 1 kJ mol 2 Hydrogen Bonds a Stronger that Van der Waals b 4 20 kJ mol c Sharing of Hydrogen H a Needs a donor with H 1 Only with Highly EN atoms Usually N O or F 2 EN atoms de shield H 3 Ex Ethanol b Needs an acceptor without H 1 Has to be a highly EN atom Usually N O or F 2 Ex Diethyl Ether c Linear 1 180 20 3 Electrostatic Interactions a Ionic Interactions Salt Bridges b 5 kJ mol a About as strong as an H Bond c Made with or partial and or partial 4 Hydrophobic Interactions a Non polar molecules attempt to get away from H20 a Nonpolar likes

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